“敏感”的原因分析

中国数字时代网站收集整理了很多敏感词,它们形形色色甚至稀奇古怪,如果不结合产生的时间段和该时段对应的网络舆论热点,则很难明白,它们为什么"被敏感"了;帖子神奇被删除,提示敏感也不行?部分用户没有被转发的权限,审查量身定做?

与敏感事件相关--初始敏感

以占中事件为例,大陆社交平台的舆论管制相当精细,“占中”二字本身并不是敏感词,因为直接书写这两个字发送的大多是反占中人士,而支持占中者深知自身观点敏感,为了延迟帖子被自动删除,而转用其他方式替代关键字,比如:拼音(zhanzhong)、英文(unbrella revolution)、谐音(站中)、遮打革命、雨伞革命、伞花革命等,而上述这些技术化处理过的词条,反倒被列入了敏感词库

再比如,“香港”和“撑”不是敏感词,而“香港+黑衣”、“撑+学生”、“我们都是香港人”、“香港挺住”、“香港加油”等等却是敏感词条,因为这些词条明显带有支持港人抗争的立场。

此外,敏感词的更新还很具时效性,在敏感事件、敏感文章出现的第一时间,相关关键字便会成为敏感词。例如:9月14号的香港黑衣游行,“香港+黑衣”这个敏感搭配便开始起效了;而网曝instagram被GFW封锁的当日,“instagram+屏蔽”、“instagram+被墙”即刻被列入敏感;而立人图书馆被关闭事件发生时,立人乡村图书馆理事会发出公开信,题为“我们愿意承受不公,因为正义不会迟到”,于是该标题的部分和全部便成为了敏感词……

评论中非议比例过大--后继敏感

在控制舆论倾向上,中国大陆网管一向坚持必须与党宣保持一致的原则。有些热点话题出现之初并非敏感,而后期被设为敏感,源于舆论监测中发现异议比例过大,无法用一一删除的方法控制,便列入敏感词,屏蔽反对和揭露的文字,甚至完全禁止搜索。比如,近日因参加习近平主持的文艺座谈会而被揭露昔日丑闻的周小平,正如推特网友@chuhan所说:“周小平的网评护航和评论删帖已经达到副部级待遇。”

在文艺座谈会召开的消息发布之初,“周小平”三个字还没有成为敏感词,但会间周小平的自拍照上传到墙内社交平台后,很快激发了质疑,首先被揭露的就是他曾经创办黄色网站的旧闻,更有周小平曾因公开批评薛蛮子,而得的“周带鱼”绰号瞬间响亮。文艺座谈会次日,新华网发表了一篇醋意浓郁的文章,文中提到“周带鱼”的绰号,瞬间引发网友嘲笑并大量转发,但两个小时后此文便全网删除了,只有网页快照可见。次日凌晨时分,网曝禁令一则:全网查删《新华社客户端:习近平问起的网络作家是何许人?》一文及相关内容。

另比如,“炎黄春秋”本身并不是敏感词,而该杂志在上个月被文化部下属的中国艺术研究院“收编”消息传出后,即刻成为了敏感词。敏感词库记录显示,“炎黄春秋+主管单位”、“炎黄春秋+独立”等相关组合词条均在列。

再如,“819讲话”是指习近平在2013年8月19日出席全国宣传思想工作会议时所作的讲话,其中多有体现“党管媒体”和加强舆论管控的意向,继而中共掀起了“整治网络运动”。在官媒播报这则消息之初“819讲话”并不是敏感词,但因随即引发的强烈谴责,主要体现在社交平台上,于是很快墙内微博禁止了该词条的搜索。

评论中引发八卦

本月15号,习近平的胞弟习远平在父亲习仲勋冥诞101周年当天在深圳特区报发表文章,文中自爆在2008年京奥前夕与有“军中第一美人”之称的军旅歌手张澜澜结婚。香港的《明报》认为,此文似为澄清早前海外盛传的有关“张澜澜与‘军老虎’徐才厚父子关系密切,或甚至被徐家包养”的消息。

当日“张澜澜”便成为了敏感词,墙内社交平台无法搜索(图2)。同时百度搜索也屏蔽了传言相关内容(图3)。资料显示,本年7月12号有禁令:「全网查删  “军中第一美女”张澜澜昔日旧照曝光曾上春晚,相关话题不得炒作」。彼时,「张澜澜」关键字还不是敏感词,因为大陆屏蔽海外网站,大陆用户不能正常浏览有关徐才厚父子与张澜澜关系的传言,是习远平的文章引发了读者对张澜澜的兴趣,有翻墙用户将海外的传闻转送进墙内,想必是为了做到全面屏蔽传言,随即将张列入了敏感。



提示敏感词的存在

日本东京电视台驻上海研究助理@竹羊羊 在发现“张澜澜”无法搜索后,截图发微博周知网友,虽然只是截图并没有使用文字“张澜澜”,但该帖还是迅速被删除了。分析认为,此条微博提示了敏感词的存在,或有引发好奇心之效用,因而被删。上海学者vivo表示:“现在删帖连通知都没有了,神不知鬼不觉帖子就消失。”(早前新浪微博删帖有“微博小秘书”私信通知,有些网友将通知截图发微博,以此声明“非自行删除”并借以谴责,但这样的微博也同样会被迅速删除)。

屏蔽易被深究的群体事件细节

博讯网10月13号报道,贵州省三穗县数万人游行示威,当地政府出动数千警察、装甲车、直升机暴力镇压,上百人被打伤,若干人被抓捕,传2人死亡。15号,山东省菏泽市巨野县人民法院审管办官方微博发布消息称:“贵州省警方14日首次对媒体通报,贵州省黔东南苗族侗族自治州三穗县公安局于日前查处一起利用互联网虚构事实故意扰乱公共秩序案。当事人受到警方行政拘留七日的处罚。”通报显示,“虚假消息”是指“执法人员打死聚集群众”。记录显示,就在当日,敏感词库中出现了“三穗+武警”、“三穗+警察”、“三穗+游行”等组合词条,明显针对的是“虚假消息被刑拘”一事的质疑声。

视传播能力强弱审查量身定做

日前,前南方周末新闻部记者赵世龙在其个人微信中称,自己的腾讯微博被禁言了。经查,赵世龙并没有发布很多敏感消息,仅是对一些热点话题做过偏隐晦性评论,他的腾讯微博显示有粉丝二十九万余,足见传播能力较强,于是隐晦评论也被加以了控制。



前海口晚报记者@海口逗逗 称她的微博只有自己关注的人看见,经本网测试属实,她又称:“发现微博控制某些人之间的转发。昨天我转周燕和翁涛都不可以,同条微博别人却可以转。然后我转司马南,一转就成功。在页面上看不出区别。”她的新浪微博有一万三千余粉丝,想必也是针对传播能力“量身定做”的审查。




经观察,“敏感度”很大程度上由传播力度引发,对于墙内社交平台而言,一些粉丝量少、传播能力低的账号发布敏感内容,不会在第一时间被删除,只有经大量转发后才会触发关键字自动屏蔽。对此,有网友想出对策:不直接转发原帖,而是复制粘贴,并注明来源或标出“转载”,这样的确可以延迟被删除的时间,但如果传播能力强的账号如此实施,依旧会在第一时间触发自动屏蔽。

同样,相比微博的敞开式传播,微信朋友圈的封闭式传播对审查机制的刺激较小,故而在微信出现之初,迅速成为墙内世外桃源,大量用户将敏感内容发在微信朋友圈,再由关注者转到微博或墙外社交平台。于是,在微信自我审查基础上今年8月网信办又出台“微信十条”,加以明文管制,近日微信又联合人民网求真频道等部门推出了微信公众号“谣言过滤器”,声称“为守护微信生态圈的健康发展而生”。“辟谣”不可能只关联删帖,高法早已设下了一系列“口袋罪”,如上个月公布的《法律意见》条文中指:微信散布分裂国家言论将被定罪处罚,以及本月9号公布的500转入罪说发酵条款之转发也或被入罪等,想必在微博微信发布敏感政治传闻和异议观点的用户很可能会中招。

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