赛博空间行为心理:网络论战和身份凸显性的被动局限(中)

文/
Lu Wei

继续前文的话题。

语境还有一个重要的体现在于TL,当你的时间线上超乎七成的网友都在关注AlphaGo的时候,如果你想插入「题外话」肯定不会获得常态下的关注程度,哪怕你的话题在其他时段内能显得很重要。这个规律在群聊中也一样。传播信息需要掌握时效,如果偏离既有话题太远便很容易被忽略,新的对话会将你发布的内容上推至很远,稍晚进群的人一般不会仔细翻完所有信息,因为群聊中的价值型信息在一般情况下比重极少。

S认为这个结论虽然没错但依旧有问题,比如在一个圈子式的群聊中(共同性高的群体),如果插入消息的个体处于圈子边缘,哪怕内容和语境的相关度再高,依旧不会打断原有对话的延续,插入的信息如同不存在。的确有这样的现象,围绕在圈子中心人物周围的既有语境已形成规范的一部分。在群组内建立起来的规范交流方式依赖于社会背景和共享的群组身份,而不是习得的反应,于是圈子边缘的群组身份在此的效应是被动淡化。

群组间的权利关系并不影响认知身份的凸显性,而是影响身份是否被表达及如何表达

如果一个群组成员对本群组是可识别的,而对外群组是不可识别的,那么会因此产生「本群组」的一致行为。你可能会有机会看到这样的状况,一个熟人小圈子中部分成员进入一个对他们来说陌生人比较多的大型群聊后,依旧会保持甚至突出原有的小圈子阵型。利用不同议题甚至是故意而随机地找寻到排外的机会,以此凸显「本群」一致性。

如果群成员对于一个强大的外群组是可识别的,那么任何可能带来认可的行为都会被抑制。这是群际关系的一部分,以排他做为凝聚的手段之一。

网络论战和规范行为 

互联网交流的特点是缺乏社会背景线索,并且没有广泛共享的规范。于是有研究认为,这种属性的影响增强了网络论战的发生。假设它成立,那么我们应该能感受到这种影响在不同的网络群组中是均匀分布的,但事实显然不是这样,仅在新闻关注群组中的分布就极不均匀。发生率相对较低的网络论战会局限于一些特定的群组,于是上述结论基本是错的——网络论战实际上是规范的一部分,而不是反规范和放纵的行为。 

C说自己进入某政治关注群组的初衷就是观战,因为该群有意拉入了各种政治观点派系中的激进风格代表,每天的主题就是骂仗——有新闻和观点转入群中,激起各个派系的表达欲望。C说,「信息本身不是重要的,它只是各方强化自身立场和主旨的媒介」。这种情况下几乎没有沟通的余地,因为各方都是以反驳为目的的表达。

或许非规范群组中的网络论战可以理解为人们在尝试为一个群组确立具有竞争性的规范。网络论战的经常发生意味着它对那个群组是正常的,如果发生在不经常论战的群组中,或许表明一个新的具有竞争性的规范正在生成。于是,对于网络论战本身来说,去个体化效应的社会身份解释就完全变成描述性的了,因为规范首先是从观察到的行为中推论出来的,所以不可能宣称一种行为是由于坚持或者不坚持某种规范而生成。

还可以有一种解释,来自对网络论战的双重自我意识,它依赖于网络交流中的自我意识和公众性自我意识的不同影响。早前我们解释过,公众性自我意识减少时会降低对他人评价的关注程度,相反的,个体自我意识水平的提高会增加对自己的态度、情感和标准的关注。

值得注意的是,网络论战中的双重自我意识影响和个体自我意识的常见结果正好相反。个体自我意识会触发对自我的调整过程,在这个过程中人们会尽可能通过宣传和争辩的方式来引导对方形成预期的行为,但对大多数人来说,这是不可能的,也就是我们常见的争辩无解。

更可能的解释是,网络论战的发生源自用户自身的目标、动机和需要等因素,比如展示自己的理论派系,挑战反对者的立场或理论派系,以及形成对群组中某些个体的吸引(动机)和促成这种吸引的需要。很明显,从论战的各方角度上看,论战本身很难促进认知,而对于旁观者来说,却能形成一个极佳的观察平台。

群组规范和身份凸显性

社会身份取决于我们归属的群组,包括现实中的群组(比如工作单位、职务)和抽象群组(一般意义上的政治派系)。网络交流中人们是否遵循规范至少取决于两个因素:1、是否视觉上互为匿名(视频聊天或者随机发布照片会减弱这一效果);2、是否有一个凸显共享的社会身份或个体身份。

在视觉匿名条件下,增加群组的凸显性会使个体遵守群组规范,而增加个人身份的凸显性则会使个体背离群组规范。前者是圈子,后者是名流群。

当社会身份凸显时,大多数网络交流固有的视觉匿名将会增强社会规范的影响,并由此产生规范的改变。这里的关键是,社会的或规范的背景是否支持个人身份或社会身份的凸显性。当社会身份凸显时,视觉匿名促使个人遵从群组规范,而当个人身份凸显时,同样的视觉匿名性将减少社会规范的影响,并促使个体坚持自己的规范和标准。

M是业余影视工作者,他所在的一个群聊近期更换了群主,新群主是位小有名气的导演。M感觉这位导演蛮有趣,发红包的时候,他要求抢到的人必须表示感谢,没有感谢的群成员会被踢出去。并且这个群聊是要求所有人用「实名+职业」标注群名片的,也就是凸出了社会身份,几乎所有人都顺应了这一看起来很奇怪的规范。至少M认为很奇怪,「群太大了,500人,即便抢到红包也都是几分钱最多几毛钱,随之而来的是几百人刷屏的感谢,外观非常震撼」。当我问起是否有人因为没表示感谢而被踢出去时,M说目前还没有,但M自己基本不去抢,他说,入群只是为多认识一些同行,有价值的互动比如商议合作,都会在私聊中进行,群就如一个中介,顺便推销下各家的作品。并且M强调,不抢红包并不是因为红包太小,而是不喜这种刻意和做作的情感要求。

行业群组中经常能见到要求标注实名+单位,以便群成员之间互相联络及合作。一个作用是凸显社会身份,减少反规则行为的发生。另一个潜在的用途则是减轻视觉匿名效应,提升交流安全感。

规范意识似乎有了,但安全感真的就此获得了吗?或许并没有。近期贾葭失踪事件在部分平台上居于热话前列,有媒体报道,同时失踪的还有新疆党宣新媒体无界新闻网的多位工作人员,但后者之详情一直未见报道。于是在一些媒体群组中会有同行问起,数个相关群组的观察显示,一旦该话题展开便立刻会被叫停:「太敏感了,群里有看不见的人(网警)你们不知道吗」。

至少在五个同行群中遭到中断话题的K认为:大家具有信息安全意识是很好的,但另方面,很多提问者的问题暴露了他们依旧不翻墙,没有加入主动争取消息和言论自由之列,只是在管制的淫威下采取了更严格的自我审查。

担心政府监视会显著降低畅所欲言的可能性是肯定的。日前,发表在美国《新闻和大众传播期刊》上的一项研究发现,对大规模监视的广泛认识通过让公民害怕公开发表异议而破坏民主。研究认为,政府的大规模监视项目可能会威胁少数观点的披露,巩固多数意见。研究根据一项随机抽样调查分析后指出,被调查者自我审查意愿的增加可以用对大规模监视的认识来解释。

惊人的信息不对称和身份凸显性的被动局限

近期最热的话题依旧是要求习近平下台的那封公开信。虽然被牵涉其中的媒体人贾葭已获释,但现居纽约的异议人士温云超(笔名北风)的家人仍被当局绑架。

北风在其推特上说,有关方面一直为难我家人,给我施加压力要我承认与公开信有关。他们此前的说法是,已经知道我不是信的作者,但认为是别人写好给我发布的,要我告诉他们是谁写的,怎么给我,如何发布,就不追究我的责任。可我无法承认跟我无关的事情。北风表示,当局还威胁要让他在政府部门当司机的弟弟丢掉工作。北风呼吁美国总统奥巴马在下周会晤到访的中国领导人习近平时,能关注他的家人情况,让他们早日获得自由。

相关消息被许多国际媒体关注,多日来一直在墙外社交网络上流传,少部分信息经由近距离关系的友人代入墙内,但观察显示,墙内反馈量极低,绝大多数局限在跨墙活跃群体的小范围内。S表示,在他的观察中,一些长期自称政治反对的网民表达出的不屑一顾态度很奇怪,看起来应该是对北风的被流亡经历一无所知,当初该消息被国际媒体报道的范围与此次不相上下,甚至更大。S认为,墙的阻隔只是一方面,另方面则是新兴政治反对群体近年来的加速封闭,没能有效扩充队伍和影响,更加之信息监管的日益强悍,这部分群体已被动脱离公众视线,愈发难以获得共情。去年推特中文圈最热的艾未未事件中就已经显示出相关迹象,艾未未的名字同样受困于信息阻隔,墙内外关注程度有天壤之别。

互联网社运依靠的更多是情绪感染力,基础是人际关联。也是当局对异议者使用隔离、打散、污蔑等卑鄙手段的主要逻辑——削弱至阻断其形成影响的能力。同时,政治反对群体自身的加速分化、极化目前为止很大程度上仍没能进入策略层面,放弃Twitter回归墙内双微的大批人群之思路更是莫名其妙,这是自主造成的信息不对称和分化。分化后的各阵营间彼此的评价中便能看出,严重缺乏沟通导致的互不理解。

 

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