另类媒体的生存

虽然“另类媒体(alternative media)”是在1960年代左右才出现的概念,但在人类历史上,并不是一件新鲜事。例如,托马斯·潘恩透过革命小册子主张美国独立;英国国会议员 John Wilkes发行报刊鼓动人民批判皇室与封建体制,都是早期的另类媒体,而他们又被称为“激进新闻(Radical journalialism)”。

台湾民主化过程中出现的党外杂志、另类录影带、民主台、地下电台都在台湾政治史与媒体史上扮演重要角色。只是过去另类媒体对抗的是威权政体,现在除了监督政府,更要对抗资本集团、以及旗下媒体共同建构的主流价值。

独立未必另类
最近几年台湾社会常用“独立媒体”形容这些相对具反叛性媒体,不过,这种说法反而不易突显出另类媒体应有性格。简单说,只要资金独立、运作独立,都能称之为“独立”媒体,但这样的媒体未必“另类”,相反的,也可能靠近于优势的权力体系,复制主流的“政治”价值。“独立”媒体也未必会站在弱势者的位置,让/为弱势发声,相反的,有些媒体即使在社会中发出异见,也可能只是某些异议团体的附庸,不具另类媒体应有的主体性。

另类媒体除了提供主流社会的异议之声、另类选择,更大的目在于促成社会改革,也就是必须要推动整体社会进步为目标。另类媒体在运作上重视内部民主化,在组织上,与强调科层分工权力结构的主流媒体有所不同,是平行、对等的组织关系,而非传统媒体的分工型态,决策共同讨论,甚至由下而上,充分尊重前线记者的判断与自主。

另类媒体的生存
另类媒体并不是为存在而存在,更重要的是不断反思其存在的目的。但即使如此,财务仍是另类媒体最大的问题,也是另类媒体难以维持的的原因,虽然,获利或利润极大化并不是另类媒体的存在目的或成功标准,但如何活下去,进而发挥更大的影响力,却是另类媒体必要思考的问题。

台湾的另类媒体或独立媒体工作者大致透过几种方式维持经营。一是“母体支持”,过去的台湾立报、破报大部分的资金由世新大学提供以维持营运:二是“贩售新闻”,部分的独立媒体工作者除了自主报导,也会与主流媒体签订合约,以个案或专题方式提供新闻,是典型的Freelancer;而“申请补助”是另一种常见的作法,这些另类媒体会向大型NGO或政府申请经费,虽然可以有较充裕的资金,但其独立性容易引发质疑;第四则是以“社会企业”的方式经营,透过贩售其它商品所得支持独立媒体的运作,例如,上下游新闻市集便是透过市集平台贩售农产,支持新闻部门运作;最后则是“公众集资”,透过公众集资平台或直接捐款,向社会大众募款,而这也是最稳定的资金来源,并且较不易受到外力的影响。另类媒体的运作未必只会透过单一财源,有些则会采取多种财源模式,以扩大来源及维持稳定。

经常有人问我,如何让另类媒体能够更普及,有更大的影响力,我的回答很简单,直接捐款给这些媒体,毕竟大部分的另类媒体并不依靠广告生存,也不能只有单一的资金来源,公众若能固定捐款支持,作为另类媒体的主要经济来源,让阅听人和独立媒体之间不是消费关系,而是伙伴关系,这样才是另类媒体的生存之道。

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