为自由而战(一)卧室里的坦克——被军事化的互联网人,以及可以怎么办

(泡泡特约)我想提醒的只是三点:1、为什么要了解这些——因为它关系到所有人在这个时代的生存;2、为什么不能妥协——因为敌人一直都在进攻;3、中国人缺少的是什么?——抵抗意识、技能和知识。

最可怕的并不是不了解,而是妥协,甚至是自我审查式的拼命想“做个好人”,这在中国很常见,在全球都不稀罕,他们看不见反击者的奋力拼搏,对送到眼前的保护盾熟视无睹,然后陷在无力的哀伤中,一事无成。正是他们,给敌人的火力敞开了大门。

新时代的战争和被动军事化

形形色色的黑客大赛往往都有政府和军队的资助,当权者希望从中培养、挖掘到更多的赛博战士。他们从战争的角度来看待问题,他们不是在传授战术,他们关注的是对防御系统的修辞术,以及攻击术于是他们需要激怒人们,激起人们的爱国狂热。他们在推动一种机器齿轮式的心智,让人们跟从“国家利益”的命令行事。

技术只是一个砝码,民族主义才是杠杆。

民间技术高手蜂拥而至,因为有耀眼的奖金和“高贵”的工作机会,然后他们成为了赢家,被政府戴上大红花,被盛情邀请去“保卫祖国”。

也许你认为自己不是技术人士,这些与你无关?也许你说那些人是五毛、功名利禄的奴隶,然后便可以高枕无忧了。但事实并非如此。只要你拥有一台可联网的电子设备,你就无法摆脱被军事化的阴影。

整个赛博空间都在加速军事化,原本属于全球公民的领地正在被把控资源的当权者步步占领。这个时代里,只要你通信就会被拦截,你就必然处于军事管制之中。事实上,绝大多数人都把自己的私生活放在了网上,这就像你的卧室里开进了一辆坦克,你的床下藏着一个士兵。这是公民身份的军事化。

不用考虑政治体制,几乎所有国家都在实施大规模拦截,因为它早已商业化了,那些想“赶着时代步伐”捞一笔的人们都在搞监控,独裁国家对这般邪门技术的狂热追求更是吸引到了全球技术专家的跪舔,钱如雨下。

大规模监控意味着储存所有通信,所有语音通话,所有流量数据,所有用到短信服务的消费方式,包括互联网连接方式。

曾经流行一时的侥幸心理认为,政府的财力无法支撑长期持续的全面监控,于是很多关注隐私安全的人把注意力放在了经济角度上。但很遗憾,大家想错了。如果你把军费预算和监控成本以及互联网战士的培训成本做一个比较,你会发现,普通的武器系统往往会更贵,赛博战士和大规模监控的成本相比一架战机来说是非常便宜的。

并且,随着科技飞跃,储存成本每年都在下降比如德国,一年只需要花费大约三千万欧元你就可以得到一个储存系统,以良好的音质储存所有德国人的电话通话,还包括管理费用,至于纯粹储存成本只需要大概800万欧元。

南非还有像 VASTech这样的公司,它们销售一种系统每年只要一千万美元,可以拦截所有人的所有通话,并储存。于是状况已经开始变化了。在以前,跨国拦截只是针对特定目标的全面监听,而现在,是永久性的拦截一切,储存一切。

比如 Eagle 这套系统,法国公司 Amesys 曾经把它卖给了卡扎菲的利比亚,在商业文件中被描述为“全国性拦截机制”,它可以监听全国所有人的通信。卡扎菲时代的利比亚有多穷、资源有多匮乏,众所周知,他们都买得起用得起法国的技术来实现斯塔西式全面监控,足够说明问题了吗?

这个“行业”的工作被分为战略路径和战术路径。战术路径的意思是:在目标场所内安装窃听器,需要有人把麦克风带进去,或者把GSM部署在一辆车里,就可以拦截人们的通话,不需要和网络运营商交涉,也无需提前获得搜查令之类的文件,不需要走法律程序。

而战略路径的意思则是默认执行,也就是记录一切,然后再分析,系统整理。

也就是把一颗通讯卫星正在转播的东西全部拿走,把一根光缆上传播的东西全部拿走。当权者喜欢这么干,因为你不知道谁什么时候就会变成嫌疑人。在西方国家,这种手段曾经引起过广泛的宪法争论,正因为他们可以永久保留这些数据。

几乎所有国家都在拦截进出本国的通信,然而像自动封锁银行账户、自动部署警力、针对特定群体拦截等诸多此类的后续活动,在Al技术的驱使下,基本是轻而易举的。西门子曾经向情报部门推销过一款自动实施行动的平台,一旦拦截记录发现A目标正位于B目标的特定范围内,目标A就能收到一条提示邮件——一个关键词——然后就能触发一次行动。

情报部门和政府的工作核心是:通过剥夺人们理解事物的能力来延缓事态发展。最常用的就是“机密”二字,一旦这个词出现,便意味着你被限制了继续了解详情的资格。

当权者会把互联网看成一种疾病,这种疾病损害了他们的能力,过去他们在用这种能力去定义现实,去定义正在发声的事,去限制人们对事实的了解,以及弱化人们的反应能力。于是现在,当权者对监控技术大举投入资金,因为他们害怕互联网会影响他们的统治方式。

他们总是在谈论数字战争,就像是他们的生意,没有一个人想要缔造和平。他们努力控制技术和法律进程,以此作为促进自身利益的手段 —— 用对你我的利益的剥夺,实现他们自己的利益。

可怕的无知者

过去,为斯塔西服务的人还能拿到金钱报酬,而如今,所有人在 Facebook 上刷活跃度,而这些人能获得的报酬只是虚无缥缈的所谓社会资本。

自我保护意识薄弱的中国人更惨,他们为了获得更多的人脉资源拼命地全裸行军,把自己内心的独白、私人信息都放在共产党举目可见的范围内,他们认为不翻墙的时候 VPN 就是多余的,他们嫌弃加密通信里“没有红包”可抢,他们觉得自己“循规蹈矩”就能避祸免灾,一个“18岁”梗就能让大批的他们主动为监视数据库添砖加瓦。

他们已经爱上了这个圆形监狱,舒舒服服地紧闭双眼,并告诉你“我们没有任何办法”。

互联网文化让人们太过乐意交出自己的私人信息了。

Google知道你在和谁通信、你了解些什么、你在琢磨什么、你的性取向、宗教和哲学信仰,你什么时候上线什么时候下线,N年前的今天此刻你正在找些什么,它都知道。

Facebook就是靠模糊私人、朋友和公众的界限来做生意的,它还储存着你误认为只对朋友和亲人可见的信息。你以为设置了信息的公开程度就一定程度上安全了?当你每一次点击“发布”时,Facebook就全知道了。这点上所有社交网络都一样。

如果你在互联网上自愿向第三方透露信息,就甭指望有任何隐私了。互联网上每个人都是第三方。

政府和情报部门可以索取Google、twitter 和Facebook的所有数据,这是合法的,而且他们还能阻止这些网络运营商将被索取数据的事实通知给客户,大部分时候你不可能知道。某种程度上你可以忘掉那个透明度报告的。

并且你还很难指责那些“遵守法律规定”的公司,这种行为被认为是正常的,而拒绝政府要求、也就是违法的行为,才被认为不正常。这也是为什么苹果能趾高气扬地辩称下架VPN是“遵循中国的法律行事”。

怎么办之一

在信息掌权者和数量越来越多的公众之间存在着一场斗争。前者是搜集信息的局内人,那些信息的影子政府,他们一直在迅速壮大,互换情报,彼此连接、并积极吸引私营部门的力量;后者就是你我,把互联网当成一个可以让全人类为自己发声的公共工具。

尽管几乎所有国家都在实施大规模监控,但大规模的通信依旧能让数以百万计的人们迅速达成共识。如果从常态中能够非常迅速地形成一种新的大规模舆论,尽管国家也许能够预计它的发展,但当权者基本没有足够时间对此做出有效反应。

这就要看社会凝聚力了。也就是人与人之间的互信。互信被网络的视觉匿名折损了一部分,但并不是太严重,最关键的还在于一个社会本身的互信能力。为什么警察国家的社会互信程度非常低,而民主社会里人们更容易彼此信任,这个问题以前写过,不再重复。

2008年的开罗抗议得益于 Facebook 上的组织,这震惊了穆巴拉克政府,结果是,那些在网上发动抗议的人也被通过 Facebook 追踪到了;2011年,埃及革命中所使用的最重要文件之一,其第一页和最后一页都用大字这样写着:“不要使用 Twitter 和 Facebook 来散发本手册”。

尽管如此,当时还是有不少埃及人使用了 Twitter 和 Facebook,但他们幸运的是,革命成功了。如果没有成功,这些人将陷入一种非常危险的境地。

中文twitter 的“茉莉花革命”时发生了什么,中国人都知道。也正是因为没有成功,才会有大批的人落入恐怖之中。

如果革命要走向成功,就需要一群愤怒的大众,需要足够高的速度,而且如果组织发生在互联网上,那就需要获胜,因为一旦不能取胜,同样的基础设施既能让一种舆论共识迅速发展起来,也能被用来追踪所有卷入舆论散播的人。

埃及曾经是美国的盟友,但它不是英语国家情报联盟的成员(Five Eyes),这一情报联盟包括美国、英国、澳大利亚、新西兰和加拿大。如果假设埃及革命发生在美国,那么 Twitter 和 Facebook上会发生什么呢?它们基本会被国家接管,一旦无法成功,FBI和CIA分分钟就能追查到所有关键参与者。

如果它发生在中国呢?毫无悬念的是断网,而不为人知的数据交易也很容易让反抗者被精确瞄准。这就是为什么关注抗争的本网不断重申:不要在未经加密的通信媒介上发布关键信息。

加密就是为所有赛博人在这个被当权者疯狂入侵的网络世界里,划出一块我们自己的地盘。二十多年来,不断有技术人士在思考这个问题,如何一块块抢回互联网,可惜其中没有中国人。随着技术发展,大家发现了更多更好的技术可以挽回互联网的民主化,这些技术原本可以分享给所有人,只可惜,太多人并没能意识到危险,反而促进了技术的集权化。

也许技术的基本趋势就要经历这样的阶段:先集权化,再民主化——如果其原理能冲击到下一代的受教育人口。

当年 Johannes Gutenberg 发明活字印刷术的时候,德国某些地区会禁止这项技术,但它还是在全国范围内迅速传播开了。因为印刷术在一地遭到禁止,他们就会转移到另外一个司法管辖区继续发展。他们扰乱了天主教会,因为教会对书籍的垄断权被打破了,而一旦卷入法律纠纷,他们就会转移阵地,到没有禁止这项技术的地方。

某种程度上可以说,是禁令在推动技术的传播。

在中国,VPN开发和使用技术的流传也异曲同工,但那个该死的GFW阻碍了人们的认知,至今仍然有绝大部分使用VPN的中国人,只是为刷推而已。

“互联网将审查视为故障,并绕道而行”——电子前哨基金会创始人 John Gilmore,1990年

John Gilmore 鼓励了所有无政府主义者的行为方式,那就是你要拥有匿名通信方式,而不必害怕被追踪。互联网需要更多的 John Gilmore。

有点可惜的是,传播需要人们理解这项技术的工作原理,印刷术不难理解,而电子技术就不一样了,人们是在技术内部制造更多的控制。这种控制是内嵌的。内嵌的控制阻碍人们去理解它,防止人们违背制造商的意愿去改变它。目前的状况甚至更糟,这些内嵌控制的机器还是联网的。

它本身就包含了监视用户和用户数据的功能。这就是为什么自由软件对一个自由社会来说是如此的重要—— 它是我们获取作为生活基础的系统蓝图的能力,同样,这也是自由硬件的重要原因。

如果你不能理解它,一般的趋势只能是顺从权威,顺从那些理解系统并声称控制系统的人。

怎么办之二

当权者举着大仁大义的招牌向我们进攻,他们可以把很多猥琐的手段合法化。

不否认所谓的战术监控在某些时候是合法的,但问题在于,司法监控的界限在哪儿?使用这些工具对所有公民实施监控的界限在哪儿?这是个政策议题。

当遇到政策议题时,往往是一些对技术本身一窍不通的政客在那儿签署各种法律。在民主国家,公民需要尽责,不仅需要对那些政客解释技术本身,也要积极地参与到技术使用的政治辩论中。在威权国家,你什么犹豫都不该有,只需要立刻投入阻击战。

在这个问题上,民主国家并不是安全港,虽然公民可以发表自己的意见。因为当局必需依法行事,如果他们不这么做得不到任何好处。但通过这种战术路径,欧盟内的民主国家一直在大规模购入能够使他们在法律之外行事的机器,这些东西不需要法院判决,完全不受控,他们只要按下开关就可以执行了。

那么对此应该怎么办呢?理论上有两个途径:物理途径——开发防范拦截的设备;人的定律——确立监管问责机制,制定民主控制的法律,以确保人们必须得到授权才能进行数据拦截。

但即便圆满完成这两个途径,也无法阻止战略拦截,它不可能受到监管的有效制约。战略拦截是不分青红皂白地拦截每个人的数据是统治集团的核心在从事这种监控,他们自己不可能有充分的政治意愿去曝光国家的间谍行为。

这种技术非常复杂、实践中又是秘密使用的,民主在此无法发挥作用。

要绕开政治问责来实施拦截是非常容易的,也很便宜。瑞典在2008年通过了一项拦截法案,即著名的 FRA-lagen,该法案意味着瑞典情报机构国航无线电局(FRA)在满足某些条件的情况下,可以合法地大规模拦截所有过境通信,并把所有数据送到美国。

而且多年来的事实证明,FRA已经在各种场合破坏了法律。更多的国家将拦截置于法律管辖之外,根本不可能对此立法,更可怕的是,立法提案在帮斯塔西们擦屁股。看威权国家。

拦截所有元数据意味着必须建立一套系统以在物理上拦截所有数据,然后扔掉元数据以外的所有东西。但这种系统是不可信的,除非有熟练工程师得以批准去彻查所发生的事,否则无法取证,由于技术复杂性和保密政策的有效勾结,真相被隐藏在其中,被掩盖在各种秘密里。

不可问责性就内嵌在这种体系中,这是体系的特征。是被故意设计出来的危险。

你觉得法律都是在维护你的利益吗?那可不一定。在包括美日英在内的33个国家联合签署的《瓦森纳协定 The Wassenaar Arrangement》中,加密技术被视为一种所谓的军民两用技术来处理,终端产品形式的加密技术如果向很多国家出口是要收到法律限制的。在宣称某些国家及其邪恶行为的背景下,这条听起来似乎有些道理,但另一面却是,通信监控技术目前没有受到任何出口限制。

所有国家都想获利,民主国家也一样,假如你和邪恶国家做生意,你把监控设备卖给他们去做坏事,那么你就能从中得利,因为你将因此知道他们在监听什么,他们在害怕什么,谁是对邪恶国家最具威胁性的人,谁在组织反对活动,于是你就可以更准确地预测到未来会发生什么,以便提早制定应对方案。

这就是为何监控系统不受管制,而加密技术被管制。

……

世界人口大约每25年翻一倍,而监控技术能力则是每18个月翻一倍,监控曲线严重压倒了人口增长曲线。没有更直接的办法可以逃脱,一个中等规模国家的全国性大规模监控之数据的储存单元,只需要一千万美元。看起来我们只能努力的控制局面。

在利比亚的抗议活动中,反对派直接奔向了监控站,他们拿到了数据,可以证实西方企业在协助卡扎菲政权的镇压运动。然而,新政府完全接管了这些监控设施,现在这些设施又在欢快地运转了。

无疑,公民有兴趣对抗当权者的利益,但糟糕的是,不论是谁拥有这种可以窃听所有人手机的能力,他都会去使用它,这就像是库存率——经济学说,只要你知道市场上正在发生什么,你就能赚到暴利。

还能想到什么办法?欢迎留言探讨。

这是无人能幸免的危机,需要更多人一起来思考。

(对全球互联网公民的终极警告)

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