谁去决定谁该被遗忘?

文/
阿蔼

(泡泡特约撰稿) 自从欧盟法院于5月13日就“被遗忘权”判定Google败诉,指民众有权要求搜寻引擎删除内容带有个人资料的连结后,Google已按相关的“裁决”建立平台,让欧盟公众网上申请移除连结。而其他的搜索引擎公司如Bing(必应),也跟从法院的判决,接受移除连结的申请。

在短短一个半月里,Google接获91,000个申请,要求移除328,000个连结,当中有53﹪已被移除,32﹪被拒绝,其余在跟进中。

被删除的连结,不少指向与公众利益相关的内容,当中包括前政界中人在其任内因为推行的政策所受的抨击,一些载有罪犯名字的报导,一些提到专业人士名字的负面评论,以及一些人曾经写过但后悔的文章。

由于申请者众,搜索引擎公司只能机械式的处理,只要申请人填妥网上表格,基本上就会接受。

个人数据保护与言论自由

其实法院的判决是引用了欧盟1995年有关个人数据保护的法令。虽然,法院强调“公众人物”并不享有这种保护私隐的权利,但何谓“公”?何谓“私”?应由谁决定?难道要私人企业去变成执法者去画这条界线?

此外,更令人忧虑的是,原来一直以来法国数据保护组织(DPA - Data Protection Authority)都在执行这条95年的个人数据保护法。当该组织收到类似的“个人数据保护法”的投诉,它不单要求搜索引擎移除连结,更会直接要求出版人删除相关内容或以匿名的方式发放。

其中一个案例是一名工运领袖指出,一段网络视频中有他的发言,令他找不到工作,结果DPA要求影片出版者删去他的名字。问题是,若这位工运领袖未来决定从政,选民就难以找到他以往公开活动的资料。目前,欧洲一些关注言论自由的组织已发声,要求制定一个有法理依据、公开、透明的机制,去平衡私隐权和言论自由。

国家权力入个人领域

欧洲的法律之所以较重视私隐,是由于它对极权统治的警剔,害怕国家权力侵入个人的私领域。

然而,互联网的出现,使既有的法律失效:斯诺登揭露美国国家安全机构大规模地监控互联网及手机通讯,展示出政府权力在反恐之名已毫无约制地入侵个人私领域。

讽刺地,既有保障公民私隐的法例,却很可能被用作破坏监察权力菁英的公共领域。 《维基百科》就首当其冲,受到打击。八月初,维基媒体基金(Wikimedia foundation)表示,Google在执行“被遗忘权”后,已删除了其搜索引擎内五十多条通往维基百科的超连结,内容涉及一些前罪犯和意大利黑帮的条目。

亚太地区落实“被遗忘权”

要留意的是,香港个人资料私隐专员公署署长蒋任宏在欧洲法院判决后不久就发表网志,把自己以亚太区私隐机构科技工作小组召集人的身份,跟进欧洲法院的裁决,商讨如何在亚太地区落实“被遗忘权”。

相对欧盟地区,亚洲因为殖民历史,民主制度的发展并未完善,部份国家仍旧以专制作为统治手段,其他地区则只有形式上的民主制度,在实质的管治运作,却为权贵资本主义,民众缺乏渠道监察政府,统治阶层贪污腐败。

互联网的普及,让公民掌握媒体力量,监察政府。譬如说,在中国大陆,网民会以“人肉搜索”去找官员贪污的罪证,透过舆论来施压。“被遗忘权”一旦落实,很可能会变成权贵压制民众监察政府的手段。

也许你会说,要求搜索引擎删除链结并未侵犯公民的言论自由,大家还能继续在网上写文章,然而,若相该文章不能通过搜索引擎显示,无疑限制了相关内容在公共领的流通。而且若要执行所谓的“被遗忘权”,很可能要订立类似欧盟1995年的个人数据保护法令,而这个法令将会赋予行政机构移除违反个人私隐的内容。换言之,掌管私隐的部门有可能变成一个审查内容的机构。

制约政府监视

斯诺登的确揭发了政权如何肆无忌惮的侵犯个人的私隐,要去保护个人权利,应从约制政府监视活动出发。然而,“被遗忘权”按目前的执行路径,只会增加行政机构的权力,去审查公民言论,并迫使不受公权约制的搜索引擎去执法。

要注意的是,目前,只有免费、公共的搜索引擎要落实法律的判决,它并没有制约一些集团以私人的搜索引擎在互联网上挖掘个人讯息,换言之,“被遗忘权”破损了互联网的开放性与公共性,但却无碍掌握资源的财团、政治团体去“人肉搜寻”。

如何在互联网公共性和保障个人隐私之间取得平衡,将会是未来一个重大议题。

评论

我觉得,被遗忘权之所以变得“肆无忌惮”,是因为缺乏相关网络财产属权的制衡。例如,现实生活中出版一本书,会有著作权等等权利,诸多较为完善的法律保护你的知识财富(政客也会为了保护你的个人财产不遗余力,以增加他的名气从而获得选票)。但是,当人们在网络上发文或写一段评论,似乎你所创作的东西就不再是你的了。可是,人们写作的东西或说的话,总的来说,应该归为个人财产,这也是言论自由的基础。因此,当网络上个人言论被视为私有财产的时候,“被遗忘权”才能良性地去执行。

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  • 自动将网址与电子邮件地址转变为链接。
  • 自动断行和分段。