隐私问题三:监视社会的由来和糟糕的“美国也有”

当然,没有办法知道在某一特定的时间里,你的一言一行是否都有人在监视着。思想警察究竟多么经常或者根据什么安排接入某个人的线路,那你只能靠猜了。甚至可以想象,他们对每一个人都是从头到尾一直在监视着的。反正不论什么时候,只要他们高兴就可以接上你的线路。你只能在这样的假定下生活——从已经成为本能的习惯出发,你早已这样生活了:你发出的每一个声音,都是有人听到的,你做的每一个动作都有人在仔细观察……《1984》

一个政府不可能有足够的人力在任何时候对每一个人都进行监视,为了减少开支,这一政治制度也需要不确定性——个人可以自己估测被监视的可能性,但是这种可能性永远不会降为零。它还必须与奖惩相权衡,如果一个极权政府要控制其人民的话,那么它需要实施严厉的惩罚,以使天平倾向有利于它的那一边。这种惩罚必须被公开,准确说是被宣传出来,从而起到杀一儆百的作用。

不论是“谣言”、还是“辱骂国家领导人”,中国政府做出的惩罚都是以宣传模式周知大众的,通过网络地方警察账号和官媒报道来实现杀鸡;同样,对那些积极参与举报他人的博主的颁奖也是宣传,它还会告诉你,“网警志愿者”涵盖许多职业和不同阶层,并称之为“正能量”,灌输一个随意剥夺他人决定权隐私是“正确的”概念。

“监视社会”这个词是十年前英国资讯专员在一份报告中提出的,并且在当时的民调中获得了79%的成年被调查者的认同。监视被定义为对人们展开有目的、常规性、系统性和针对性的监视。在监视社会中,它被用来达到控制、授权、管理、影响和保护的目的。

这些资讯一直被支持监视的一方频繁引用,尤其是中国政府的支持者,他们喜欢说“西方国家也有”。不消说政治自由和不自由有天壤之别,如果你认为一次民调能长久保值的话那就太离谱了,民意测试专家和其他媒体分析家一样热衷于关注时事,他们往往会在偶发事件之后立即开展民意调查,从而仅仅为不断变化的民意提供一个个快照——这种调查数据在几周之后就毫无价值了

不管监视者宣称的目的如何善良,这类监视仍然存在很多危险,以及争议,近年来不少影视作品采用了其伦理问题做矛盾冲突,比如《Person of Interest》。你要知道的是,信息很可能会被滥用,即便是民主国家的政府也可能会出错,如果有人对这种侵犯隐私的行为提出抱怨的话,政府总会用荒谬的理由去搪塞,比如:“你不触犯法律就没什么可担心的”云云。

恐怖主义暴力事件的频发在这一问题上更加剧了政府方面的理直气壮。在反监控人士提出抗议的时候,人们能听到的除了陈词滥调,肯定还有对那些思想警察真正的担忧。911后,一位美国的博客作者这样写道:当我在多伦多机场慢慢走过很长的安检通道,两侧荷枪实弹的安保和军事人员让我感觉非常紧张。虽然我是一个白种男人没有被挑出来接受安全检查,但是仍然有些东西让我感觉害怕。正如我们后来所发现的,这还仅仅是一个开始……

——地球村和纠结的私域——

加拿大哲学家麦克卢汉曾经预言,追着新的技术和媒体的出现,人类不久将生活在一个地球村中。当时大多数人只是认为这意味着旅行将变得更为简单便捷,从而使得不同文化频繁地互相融合,并产生深远影响。但“村庄”的另一个特点被忽视了,它就是:缺乏匿名性和保密性。要享有隐私就需要付出很大代价,这是我们不得不接受的。

确实,多数人能在被各种监视包围的状况下愉快地生活,并且主动去培养和适应这种生活。隐私和匿名某种程度上是近代出现的理想,而很多传统意识的人依然注重安全和凝聚力。911后皮尤全球态度调查显示,各国人中普遍存在对犯罪和恐怖主义的担忧,即便是担忧者比重较小的国家如英国,后来也遭到了严重的恐袭。但人们应该已经发现,高强度的安全防控并没能阻止恐怖分子的行为

反恐战争被支持者认为是保卫自由主义免受极端分子威胁而采取的积极行动。自由主义者面临的困境是:对不宽容者宽容是自由社会的一个弱点——当不宽容者开始谋杀他们所不能宽容的人的时候,那么他们那种不宽容行为就不得被宽容。如果这个逻辑成立,那将意味着允许自由主义者采取查看他人隐私信息、对他人进行监视、限制他人政治活动等一系列措施。

“安全”成为了能抗衡隐私价值的突出例子。反恐的旗号可以让各国警察拥有从监视到监禁的一系列侵扰公民隐私的权力。只有非常极端的自由主义者才会相信,个人可以独立于一个赋予各种行为意义的、正常运作的社会而享有自由。

在社会凝聚力不强的社会中,促进凝聚被认为格外重要。塔利班组织之所以最初能在阿富汗受到欢迎,只因为他们至少有能力击退互相残杀的军阀,并有一些能使他们公平执政的宗教和道德力量。尽管他们的统治是残酷无情的,很多阿富汗人仍然认为,这些社会凝聚力总比一点都没有的强。

一些亚洲国家,尤其是中国也把社会凝聚力看作目的本身,人们经常争辩说“政府在掌握可靠数据的情况下能更为有效的运转”,他们所持有的集体主义伦理是主张缩小私人行为空间的。

虽然监视有些时候也是有利的,比如在公共卫生方面,当疫情发生时,能帮助权力部门最快速发现和隔离;环境治理方面也有类似的作用,当然背景必须是政治自由。西方民主国家用监控技术提升了他们所追求的效率,但不幸的事,那些监控技术被“出口”到了部分非民主国家中、变成了中国政府及其支持者口中的“美国也有”

——为什么必需隐私权——

如果政府有关安全和办事效率的说法是正确的,那么我们为什么还需要隐私呢?对于自由主义者来说,隐私问题远不止普通意义上的那些需要回避。隐私与自主——即一个人的行为不受他人干涉的权利密切相关。如果一个人想要自由的话,就必须能在不受他人干涉的情况下自主行事、必须能够在以某种方式控制其所处的环境,能在必要的时候防止他人知晓有关自己的某些事情——进入自己的私人空间,或撤销自己做出的决定。

最早提出这一论点的是自由主义思想家John Stuart Mill,他说:社会能够对公民施加巨大的压力,以至于他们无法判断自己想要做什么,以及他们所做的事是否正当。我们提醒过多次的独立思考和批判性推理,就是为摆脱环境的影响和牵制,可惜在中国的等级意识和集体主义文化下,人们总也找不到真正自由独立的空间。

公民需要得到保护,以使其避免不必要的干涉,而这种保护就是隐私权,我们只有在享有隐私权的情况下才有可能成为道德的思想家和有道德的人。我们需要对自己所想所为进行思考,就需要控制他人对我们的接触,因为我们需要知道,这是在按照自己的意愿而不是他人强加给我们的意愿行事。

因此,隐私归根结底是一个对人的尊重的问题。如果我们要将他人视为不可侵犯的个体,那么就必须给他们各种私人空间、躲避监视的实实在在的私人空间。我们可以讨论这些私人空间的价值,但如果你承认人具有内在价值,那么就必须让他们享有隐私权。

——新语境新权利——

技术并不能从根本上改变有关社会和人际交往的政治原则,但它的确可以改变人际交往的社会条件。在西方国家,言论自由仍然没有改变,但数字技术为这一自由的行使创造了一个新环境。因此我们说关注的焦点并不是新技术,而是新语境,正如布兰代斯所说:新的语境往往要求我们重新考虑我们的权利。

如果一个社会想要保持其创新精神的话,那么法律就必须随着社会环境的改变而改变,这正是中国政府所面临的困境:它希望通过互联网获得经济利益,却又惧怕承担相应的政治风险。

在中国,政府可以随意筛查他们不喜欢的内容,只是他们自己不喜欢而已,可他们要把自己的价值观强加在所有人头上。政府并不希望失去互联网所带来的利益,于是一面清洗,一面利用,以期将其打造成纯粹的政党意识形态一言堂。这是不可能实现的。

监视技术的支持者往往会犯一个错误,那就是他们认为人们可以事先界定和限制这种技术的使用。根据社会学家Max Weber所建立的导致监视和效率的行政机构经典模式,监视系统是为了特定目的而建立的,并且人们预计它会给社会带来很大的好处。

然而,官僚机构对信息有着难以满足的渴求,这便导致人们通常所说的功能蠕变。大信息库对于权力阶层来说诱惑力实在太大了。恐怖主义和重大犯罪事件很可能会在较长期内增加对监视措施的支持,而极其恶劣的滥用个人信息事件则会起到相反的作用。

——未完待续——

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