Q&A:关于私德公德、不对味的中国式沟通、千篇一律的时评和川粉(上)

(泡泡特约)最近积累了几个问题,统一分析下,从心理学角度。它们是:

私德和公德真的是两码事吗?为什么经常感觉很多社群里的争执只不过源于双方根本不在一个频道上?为什么如此多的时政评论几乎千篇一律?小粉红和特朗普粉丝会转变立场吗?

1、私德和公德真的是两码事吗?

经常看到这样的观点:“私德无所谓,只要公德正义就值得信赖”。比如一个人私下说谎、严重歧视他人,但公开表示支持平等自由、或在学界或政界占有显赫地位,这样的人可以信任吗?

首先把这个问题可以换成另外一个逻辑一样的现象来考虑:海外留学生中的自干五群体。理论上良好的教育能提升认知、民主社会环境信息自由,人的思维能力应该有明显改善,那为什么还有如此多的自干五呢?中国政府的统战能力并不是全部原因。

这两个问题是一样的。

首先需要介绍一个概念:being,以下用“素质”来代替,这种素质不只是中文舆论所理解的那种简单的公民素养,必需强调这点否则会引起误解,而是人存在的一种方式,没找到一个太合适的词来描述它,可以说有点像老百姓平常说的“某人所处的层次”。

世界上并没有“人的标准素质”这样的东西,人的素质差异很大。在现代思想中人们无视素质这个观念,以及素质的不同层次,相反他们深信一个人的素质中充斥着越多的矛盾和冲突时,这个人就“越有趣、越杰出”。

众所周知,人们大多心照不宣的乃至是公然的认为一个人可以在说谎成性、自私自利、不可靠、不讲理、心术不正的同时,还是一位伟大的什么什么家。其实这是绝对不可能的。

人们通常认为一个人素质中不同特征的相互冲突就是其原创性的表现,而其实这正是这个人的弱点。一个心灵扭曲或矛盾的人不可能成为一位伟大的思想家或艺术家,这是个事实能力问题,等同于一位肺结核病患者不可能成为一名战绩卓越的职业拳击手。

把自相矛盾和无德无良当作“创新性”一旦成为人们的共识,就会助长那些在科学、艺术、宗教和政治领域中的骗子。

因为being是人得以进化的两个必要条件之一,平常生活中人们判断一个人的being时一般依赖于社会价值观,比如财富、知名度、领域成就这些,也就是对应了通常认为的阶层地位。但这并不是真正的being,如果一个人是通过欺诈等恶劣甚至非法手段获得的阶层地位,他的being依旧很低,并不代表其成功实现了进化。

进化的另一个必要条件就是知识。通常人们都理解知识具有不同层面,具有相对性,也理解获得新知识的必要性。但大多数情况下并不理解素质与知识是截然分开的东西,它也具有相对性和不同层面,也必须得到发展,并且与知识的发展是分开进行的,两者缺一不可。

如果知识的发展超过素质,或者素质的发展超过知识,就会造成片面发展,而片面发展是难以持续的,必定会因某种严重的内在冲突而停滞下来。

生活中最常见的一种就是知识的发展超过素质,这样的后果是人对某些观念采取武断的态度,并且由于缺乏理解而使得知识无法得到进一步发展。高学历名校学生中的自干五现象就是如此。

批判性思考的能力就是一种非常重要的素质。

你现在还认为Trump的“boy talk”、以及各种歧视性言论与政治表现无关吗?

2、为什么经常感觉很多社群里的争执只不过源于双方根本不在一个频道上?

的确不在一个频道上。也就是争议发生于不能互相理解的状态下。于是要解释这个问题就需要说明一个概念:究竟什么是理解。

可能大多数人无法回答这个问题。人们总是把理解与“知道”、或“得到讯息”混为一谈。

为了理解一件事,你必须看到它与更大领域或更大整体之间的关联,以及这种关联可能产生的后果。

理解就是把一个小问题与一系列大问题关联起来之后,对小问题产生的理解。

相关误会太多了,人们甚至常常认为理解意味着为一种新奇的或出乎意料的现象找出一个名字、一个概念、或贴一个标签,就完成了。其实恰恰相反,如果能够把我们在理解事物时使用的词汇减少一半,我们也许能够获得更好的理解。

因为一个词汇就框定了一个意思,而这个存在于其所属的概念内的意思只是全部意思的一个局部,你确定了一个名词、更糟糕的是一个标签,之后的理解必然会被其约束住。本网在政治宣传系列中对这点有详细介绍,狡猾的政客和营销客很擅长使用这样的方法来局限住他们的目标群体的思考方式。中国民主派人士在思考问题时贴标签的现象也非常强烈,这是值得警惕的,很多思考障碍带来的问题会与此有关。

另方面,说“我理解一个人”这句话究竟是什么意思?要实现理解,你和这个人之间必然需要存在一种共同语言,一套公认的概念、词汇、标志或符号,如果谈到某些事物时使用的虽然是同一个概念,但彼此对其的认识互不相同,那么理解就会中断,比如公民社会、非暴力抗争、甚至民主、左翼右翼,在中国舆论场中都有各种完全不相同的认知,这样是无法形成互相理解的,不论各自解释了多少。

互相理解的人之间不仅必须具有同样的知识,还必须具有同样的素质(being),否则很难互相理解。

现代人还有一种误会认为人有权利对同一件事物做出不同的理解。从这个体系的观点来看这是荒唐的。理解不可能不同,理解是唯一的,其他的结论都不是真的理解,或不完全是。

理解意味着从整体角度对一个部分做出认识,不过人们对于“整体”的概念,会因他们知识和素质的截然不同而存在很大差别。必须承认,有多少人就会有多少种不同的“理解”。每个人都依照自己所受的机械式的训练或习惯,以他自己的方式来“理解”各种事物--注意这里都加了引号。于是这全部都是一种主观的、相对的理解。而客观的理解只有借助知识体系和素质的提升才能实现,它是唯一的。

另外还需要强调,对他人的理解取决于对自己的理解和素质水平。这意味着你能够评判别人的自私,但无法评判他们的素质,自己的素质处于什么水平就能够在他人身上有相应的发现。换句话说就是,你可能不会真正理解与自己的素质不等同的其他人。然而人们总是误以为自己能够评判他人的素质,事实上如果你想遇到和理解发展水平高于自己的人,就必须改变自身的知识水平和素质水平。

那么是什么东西使人想要获得新的知识并改变自己呢?来自两类影响

第一类影响(A) 由生活本身创造出来的兴趣的吸引所组成,包括对健康、安全、财富、快乐、平安、虚荣、骄傲、名声等等的兴趣。现实生活中绝大多数人的追求基本都包括其中。

第二类影响(B) 来自另外一个层面的兴趣,它们无法直接接触到人,它们被投入到生命中,经由许多不同的心灵感悟、透过哲学、科学、宗教或艺术的形式传递给人。现实中它们总是和第一类影响混合在一起,从而使自身变得面目全非。

如果一个人完全被A类影响或其中某些所控制,与B类影响全然无关,那么他就不会有任何成长,他发展的可能性也会随着年龄的增长而减少,并在某个年纪完全消失。这就是说,人会在身体还活着的时候死去,就像一颗无法发芽的种子。

如果人没有完全处在A类影响之下,被B类影响所吸引并有所感触和思索的话,那么B类影响产生的印象所带来的结果就会汇聚起来,吸引更多同类的影响并使人得到发展,从而在这个人的心灵和生命中占据比较重要的地位。

——未完待续——

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