删除真的很容易吗?删除之后呢?抵制 Facebook 运动不该忽视深层问题

(泡泡特约)很多人一直相信,像互联网这样的全球通信网络可以成为一种积极的社会力量。尤其是全球各地的人权活动家、公民社会组织者、记者和政治学者,互联网为他们的工作提供了前所未有的便捷,已经成为非常重要的工具。

但随之而来的是 Facebook 等大型网络公司所代表的无法控制的集中式管控,数字极权给整个世界带来了更多不平等和不公正。这些科技巨头依赖所有人的隐私数据维生,这是一种“监视经济”。剑桥分析公司丑闻只是“监视经济”这一长期而根本性的问题的典型案例之一

越来越多的人们不想接受这些权力结构,更不希望自己的存在成为引诱其他人进入数字全景监视器的诱饵。剑桥丑闻后 #deleteFacebook 成为全球性的舆论热点,但真正能做到吗?似乎并没那么容易。

越来越多的人删除了他们的Facebook账号。但他们中很多人立即让朋友到 Instagram 上去找自己 —— Instagram 属于 Facebook 啊难道忘了吗?简直太荒谬了。许多最近放弃了 Facebook 账户的人仍处在该公司的轨道之中,不仅使用 Instagram,还使用着该公司颇受欢迎的即时通讯应用 WhatsApp 和 Messenger。

根据Keyhole的数据,自8月份以来,使用 #BoycottApple(抵制苹果)标签的4700条推文中,有近三分之一发自 iPhone……这甚至不是笑话。

“无处可去”?

Facebook 近20亿用户很可能无处可去。这是因为,除了少数例外,Facebook 一直在设法通过克隆或收购竞争对手来挤压其他对手,抢占领先地位,逐渐实现垄断人类的在线方式。这是一种习惯于不可替代性的商战策略。

自创立以来,Facebook 一直在为此做着准备。现在就是所谓的用武之地了。

路透社本月对2237名美国人的调查显示,41%的人信任 Facebook “合法保护他们的数据”;根据最近针对技术人员匿名聊天应用程序 Blind 的民意调查显示,31%的人表示他们计划删除Facebook。

技术产品之间互相复制并不罕见。硅谷充斥着几乎难以区分的创业公司,但 Facebook 自己的模仿品牌被视为与进步不相容,这是一种自然的垄断,也收窄了它的竞争空间。该公司不仅消耗了竞争对手,而且还消耗了我们所有人的习惯,使得普通人几乎无法接受 #DeleteFacebook,人们会感觉太难了、太不方便了,他们曾经把整个生活甚至人生的未来都寄托在 Facebook 上了。

人们害怕与家人、朋友甚至是从未见过面的网络“好友”断绝关系。对于老一辈人来说,他们也表示担心 Facebook 的行为,但无法想象删除自己的帐户,那将意味着切断曾重新点燃的社会关系和家庭关系。55岁以上的人群是社交网络发展最快的人群

2009年,Facebook以1500万美元收购了现已不存在的 FriendFeed,一家社交媒体聚合商,另外还有3250万美元的股票。那时 Facebook 已经在复制 FriendFeed 的原始功能了,比如“Like”按钮和实时更新。一年之后,Facebook 又为 Friendster 拥有的所有社交网络专利支付了4000万美元,这是另一个早已逝去的、并曾被很多人心爱的社交平台。

就如Gigaom 所说,“Facebook清除任何对其核心技术背后的知识产权形成冲击的对手是非常重要的”。在2012年,Facebook 花费10亿美元收购 Instagram,两年后以190亿美元购买了广受欢迎的消息应用程序 WhatsApp,Facebook Messenger 的竞争对手。然后,在2013年花费了1.5亿美元,用于名为 Onavo 的 VPN 技术,它允许该公司在保护其数据的幌子下监视用户的行为

Facebook收购了许多不同的公司。要么吸收它们,要么借用它们,要么买回来“收藏”。基于位置的入住初创企业、移动广告人才、群组消息技术、问答服务和社交赠送平台等,这些就是人们今天所了解和使用的 Facebook 的核心功能。这不仅令人怀疑,Facebook 究竟是想将社区融合在一起,还是使得在其他地方建立社区变得不可能?

无处可逃?

就算你从未主动选择 Facebook 或任何其他大型社交网络,但 Facebook 仍然有一个详细的配置文件可用于定位你。也许你从未同意让 Facebook 收集数据,但它还是做到了,这些数据可以用来绘制关于你的生活、习惯和社会关系的非常详细的推论。你的人生的全景图。

就算删除是容易的,但你仍然要受制于Facebook 横跨全球的监控和定位网络至少有两类信息可供 Facebook 使用:

一、来自其他 Facebook 用户的信息。当你注册Facebook时,它鼓励你上传你的联系人列表,以便该网站可以“帮你找到朋友”。很多人信了,至少看起来它很方便,但人们可能不知道 Facebook 一直在使用这些联系人信息来扩充监视范围,即使那些被波及人并没有同意参与。

同样,很多人会将你存在于其中的某些照片上传到 Facebook,你也许没有同意过这点,但Facebook仍然可以借此来跟踪你和朋友们。

总之请记住,就算您自己不在乎自己的隐私,您的存在同样可能会向公司提供有关不同意参与其监控平台的其他人的信息。

二、来自网站上的信息。大多数你访问过的网站都有一个“点赞”按钮,实际上是鼓励你的浏览器告诉 Facebook 你的浏览习惯。即使你没有去点赞,它也需要浏览器向 Facebook 的服务器发送一个请求,以表示“赞”按钮本身。该请求包含您正在访问的页面名称、以及您的浏览器可能收集的任何 Facebook 专用 Cookie 的信息。这个被称为“第三方请求

这便使得 Facebook 可以创建详细的浏览历史记录 ——  即使你从未直接访问过Facebook,更不用说注册Facebook帐户。

想想你访问过的大部分网页,有多少网页没有那个“点赞”按钮呢?如果您正在管理一个网站,并且在每个网页上都包含了一个“点赞”按钮,那么您可能正在帮助 Facebook 构建访问者的个人资料,即使那些退出社交网络的访问者也不例外。

网站上的 Facebook “共享”按钮更为常见,以及其他工具,似乎看起来与“Like”按钮有点不同,但实际上它们做的是同样的事。

Facebook建立在非用户身上的个人资料不一定包括所谓的“个人身份信息”(PII),如姓名或电子邮件地址。但它们确实包含了相当独特的另一些东西。你可以做一下测试,使用 Chromium 的 NetLog(一套为Chrome网络栈而设计的事件日志机制,帮助调试问题和分析性能),去访问你感兴趣的各种网站吧,除了 Facebook。你会看到自己发送给 Facebook 的无 PII 数据都是些什么,其中可能会包括你正在阅读哪些文章、你的饮食偏好、兴趣爱好、政治立场等诸多信息。

鉴于这种映射和定位的精确性,“PII” 已经不是透露身份所必需的。如果 Facebook 将这些信息与上面提到的电子邮件中的“网络错误”结合起来,毫无疑问他们会。如果 Facebook 没有将这些点连接到他们声称的数据收集目标,所有人都会震惊。

如今这个时代能避免社交媒体而完成工作和满足全部生活需求的人越来越少了,这种完全的避免已经成为一种特权,很多人没有这种特权,不得不接受 Facebook的条款。正如文章开头所说,许多记者、组织​​者、学校、政界人士以及其他人他们有理由反对 Facebook 类集中式社交控制,但他们都会被 Facebook 的影响力和规模所迫使而加入那些实验性活动,甚至是那些早已被判断为有害的活动。

这种特权的存在是荒唐的。隐私不应该是一种奢侈品,如今我们需要在整个社会背景下评估隐私问题。delete 是个人选择,但根本性问题已经不是可以在个人层面上得到解决的了,源于这些数据的人际关系本质以及所涉及的权衡的复杂性。

技术措施

不要期待当权者为你做什么,当权者正从这些窥视狂互联网巨头的数据收集中获益呢,他们只是在假装担心隐私问题。更不要指望这些数字巨头为你做什么,他们打着改革整顿的旗号,正是为了安抚人们让你继续接受被收集。必须知道,没人愿意付费使用这些应用的结果就是,它们必然会通过出售我们的数据以维生。

幸运的是我们可以自己完整自我保护,采取一些技术措施来限制这些监视实践的范围。例如,某些网络浏览器默认不会发送“第三方Cookie”,或者它们对 cookie 进行范围限制,以便集中监控不会获得单个用户的单一视图。隐私保护效果最好的现代浏览器是 TorBrowser,每个人都应该安装并使用该浏览器,即使不是随时随地的选择。我们正在准备推出一系列相关文章,进一步说明这点。尤其是异议人士、活动家、科研人士和记者,这些高危人群需要特别注意这点。

您还可以通过修改某些浏览器——例如使用Firefox和Chrome的插件——以便它们不发送第三方请求。 Firefox 还在探索更多隐私保护技术。

但是不能否认,这些工具比大多数人习以为常的网络浏览器显得“更难使用”,并且这些工具会对一些在线活动造成障碍(例如,如果没有第三方cookie,登录某些网站和访问某些Web应用程序是不可能的)。

一些网站运营商通过减少第三方请求的数量,比其他网站更加重视访问者的隐私。例如可以显示“在 Facebook 上分享”或 “likes” 按钮,而无需首先向 Facebook 发送用户请求。美国自由公民联盟 ACLU 的网站是这样做的,因为 ACLU 知道,自由阅读的隐私权是公民语话的根本保护

应该修复的是整个监控经济,而不仅仅是Facebook

Facebook只是整个在线“监控经济”的罪魁祸首,尽管它是一个巨大的公司 - 该公司拥有Instagram,Atlas,WhatsApp和其他数十家互联网和科技公司和服务。但它并不是这个领域唯一的成员。

Google 等巨头的商业模式也依赖于这种监视,而且还有数十个小型公司都在其中。这些公司的收集就等于政府收集。斯诺登的文件中最著名的几个之一就是:国安局与世界上最大的互联网公司——Facebook,Yahoo,Apple,Google 等签订的秘密协议,国安局可以从9大互联网公司的服务器上直接收集数据。其中与之合作最密切的是微软,国安局直接可以进入其通讯平台Skype和Outlook微软帮助国安局规避新版 Outlook 的加密设置以达到其监视的目的。

换句话说就是,如果没有这些互联网巨头的大规模收集和亲政府配合,情报部门和政府的收集就会大打折扣,我们很可能改变不了后者,但我们有可能改变前者。

在解决 Facebook 和剑桥分析公司丑闻带来的后果时,不能忽视这背后更大的机制。剑桥分析公司的失败和错误是 Facebook 商业模式所固有的,真正解决问题的办法是认真挑战鼓励人们选择接受这种监视的社会结构。同时还需要保护那些设法退出的人。

 

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