Mr.Statelessness? 夹缝中的美国华裔和中国移民爱好者

(泡泡特约)FoxNews事件出现时我就准备做这个题目,还没来得及进入采访,纽约时报的亚裔员工又曝出了其亲历的歧视事件,瞬间刷爆了英文网络。花了几个小时查看留言,发现共鸣者的确不少。一般选题除了要考虑时效之外,还需要做相关市场分析,Fox应该也不例外,反过来看就是,这个节目中所展示的对华裔的态度在当下美国社会群体中能获得可观的共识,至少贴近该节目的收视预期。

在互联网上,关于歧视问题的感知曾经给我印象很深的一件事是,大概两年前,一位华裔移民在twitter上表示不喜欢中国的社交网络,并不是因为GFW,“而是那里的人一口一个支那猪”。该消息获得了很多转发和中英文留言,大多数人表示了支持。在中国,自认为聪明的人喜欢这样称那些相比下糊涂的人,而亚裔美国人对这个词的敏感或能映现他们在现实社会中所经历的一些不快。

被歧视激怒的纽约时报记者发布的公开信证实了上述大部分推测,他说,“这并不是我第一次遇到种族侮辱,问问任何一个亚裔美国人,他们都会立刻回忆起在校园里被嘲讽的情形,抑或在街上或杂货店里的恼人遭遇……”,他还说,“我们许多人每天都在竭力应对这种无处不在的异已感。不论我们从事什么职业,有多么成功,和谁交朋友,我们都不属于这里……依然常常觉得自己像个外人”。

网络上的英文留言中还提到了一种“隐晦”的歧视,就是问“你从哪里来的?或者夸一个人的英语水平好”,如果对方真的认为亚裔美国人也是美国人的话,还会为他们的英语水平表示惊讶吗?尽管是单方面描述且没有充分的语境,也足够能体察到其中蕴含的对“我的确是美国人的强调”。

这句话正是绝大多数相关留言与这位记者存在的一个鲜明的共同点,“我是美国人”,潜台词是“我不是中国人”。然而,有中国网友对此称之为“活该”,理由是“那些混迹中国社交网络的在美华裔一样瞧不起中国土著,并在此间获得身份优越感,老移民也瞧不上新移民”,换句话说就是,认为他们争取的并非全面平等,而是自己在白人(上等阶层)眼中的地位。

这也是一种组块思维,上述现象存在不代表纽约时报这位记者就是其中之一。人们所表达的只是一种身份认同需求,身份认同由两部分组成,一个人对于自我特性的表现,以及与某一群体之间所共有观念(国籍或者文化)的表现,如果缺乏互相认同便难以在心理上成立。随着全球化、欧洲一体化和移民潮的发展,身份认同问题越来越困扰社会、国家、民族、社群和个人。

不过社会支配理论有可能解释这种现象:具有高社会支配取向的个人把自己的群体看作与其它群体“不同”,也就是高于其他群体,并希望自己的群体能支配社会,逐层类推。个人的社会支配取向的偏好是不一样的,身份较低的人有可能通过“把等级制合法化”从而让自己能够喜欢高等级身份的外群体。也就是说,等级制成为了相关思考的一个基础,不论是歧视还是被歧视。

换个角度看,如果他们是日本人,也有着一张亚裔的面孔,但来自民主国家,还需要这样强调吗?我没有更多时间去采访来自民主国家的亚洲移民,但接触到了一些仍生活在中国的移民爱好者,因为该消息并没有在中文网络舆论场引起显著的波澜,它给我的印象是中国人不在乎,事实似乎也能证明这点。一些回复者表示,能生活在美国就是终极目标,歧视不是问题;还有人表示,“中国人被歧视是自找,他们和他们的祖父辈都甘心当奴才,在哪都是翻不了身的,不同的是,生活在美国至少比生活在中国安全太多了”;“有机会获得尊重和不给自己这样的机会有着天壤之别”……

还有一些正在准备办理移民的中国人表示,不愿对此发表意见,还有人直言,不希望自己的家人尤其是孩子看的这样的消息,认为很难在此基础上继续强调移民的重要性。

当下的中国的确不存在一个具有广泛吸引力的身份认同,无法真正将国内各种不同的声音团结在一起,持反对立场的人喜欢称中国为“你国”,拒绝承认自己的中国籍身份,他们同时也对移民有很高的期待,甚至对美国的认识颇为理想化;海外政治避难身份的华裔在美国土著眼中同样是华裔,很可能也没有获得足够的美国籍心理满足感,而他们自己的群体又没能建立起一个独立的文化体系,于是处于一种夹缝状态;还有人这样评价:华裔美国人(尤其是新移民)是一个奇怪的群体,他们在使用中国的社会价值观、思维和行为习惯表达“我爱美国”。

虽然华裔群体内部存在很大差异,各自状况不同,但仍可以这样说,如果中国的政治状况持续,这部分群体的身份认同危机也很可能将会持续。

不宽容则歧视,大部分共产主义者和无神论者都是政治不宽容的,宽容(tolerance)和持久的人格特质息息相关,刻板印象、心理不安全感、教条主义和缺乏信任的人格都会造成不宽容,无法解决这些问题就无法解决歧视问题,也就是说,在中国生活的和秉持中国文化的群体尤其难以走出歧视和被歧视的怪圈,看看中文舆论对LGBT、穆斯林和黑人的态度就能了解。当下被恐怖主义阴云笼罩的欧美境况也很危险。

关于种族主义、偏见和歧视的研究很多都来自美国。几个世纪以来,各种各样的移民进入美国,导致美国的种族问题比世界上其他地方出现得更早。很多用于解释欧洲社会中的种族主义的理论,也同样适用于美国。

很多评论提供了美国华裔的增长数据和华裔群体做出的卓越成就为凭据,认为部分华裔的政治影响力已足够与白人中产“平起平坐”,他们在一定程度上是对的,但没能解决问题,因为没有触及到歧视问题的根源,它既是政治学问题也是心理学问题。

一提到种族偏见人们都会想到刻板印象,Fox的节目主持人Jesse Watters所采用的空手道、双节棍和蹩脚英语等标签性“搞笑”元素就是刻板印象的体现,然而它只是歧视问题的一个结果,其根源涉及强烈的情绪过程。

情绪因素发挥关键作用意味着人们可能诉诸信念来为自己情绪驱动的行为作出后验的辩护。比如在地铁里,人们可能会做出厌恶的反应,避开其他种族成员的身边,当注意到自己这样的行为时,他们才会采取刻板印象来为此做辩护。纽约时报的记者没有详细描述“被挡了路”的细节,推测认为很可能就是这样的过程。

相关种族主义的诸多标准理论都将个人虚化处理了,只集中在可以经由调查数据或者采访汇总的公开态度上,而没有考虑人们做出种族决策的心理过程。神经成像技术早已证实了这点,通过给被试观看不同种族的人物照片和视频,完全可以诱导出足够明显的骄傲、嫉妒、同情或厌恶的情绪。

经典理论中最为尖刻的当属权威主义人格理论,它将右翼权威主义者压缩成三种人格症候群;1、权威屈从(authoritarian submission),意思是一种强烈的屈从于权威的心理趋势,如上述提到的甘心为奴;2、权威进攻(authoritarian aggression),就是对外群体的敌意,比如白人至上主义、雅利安人是高尚的纯种等思想;3、成规主义(Conventionalism ),即遵从社会规范,不愿意挑战“既有事物”。

右翼权威主义者有很多不满,他们对少数族裔怀有敌意,总是埋怨机会不公,但他们却往往没有意识到自己是相对自我中心主义的。而且他们似乎也不希望去发现这点。相对来说,他们总是乐意帮助政府去迫害你可以想象得到的几乎任何群体——包括他们自己。

也就是说,政治领导人(包括其他权威级渠道)所促成的政治气候是一种最直接的刺激,就如本届美国大选,特朗普调动了这一群体潜藏已久的兴奋,他们需要一个理由为自己丧失的优越感或者潜在的被威胁到的利益作出解释,那么少数族裔就成为了最佳替罪羊。目前持反移民立场的欧洲右翼也能套用这种解释,比如德国的AfD(选择党)。

联合国人权事务高级专员扎伊德说,假如特朗普当选为美国下届总统,“从国际视野来看他将是一个危险的总统”。其实从美国视角上也一样。

恐怖主义是现实,它的危害远不限于其本身,太多次生效应早已显现,互联网反恐对言论自由和隐私安全的侵犯监视社会的扩张、以及种族偏见。日前,美国最高法院同意听取一些穆斯林和其他移民能否控告前司法部长约翰·阿什特克罗夫特和其他官员的讼词。这些人在美国遭受9/11恐怖袭击后被拘押了数月,并且是基于自己的种族、宗教和移民身份而被当作恐怖分子嫌疑人关押起来的,并在拘押期间受到了虐待,随后遭到遣返……

不过数据显示,911事件后,很多民意调查可证,人们对穆斯林的消极看法存在很大差异,或许意味着在这一议题上美国尚且缺乏一个明确而稳定的偏好。如果特朗普赢得选举,将会在很大程度上定格社会偏见。虽然华裔不存在这一问题,但很可能会受到对少数族裔态度的波及。

完全可以体会不少华裔的委屈,尤其是新移民,他们中很多人并不认同威权政府,然而中国的国际形象就写在他们脸上。对于夹缝中的华裔“文化难民”来说,如果希望自己真正获得踏实的身份认同,所需要思考的东西还有很多。移民爱好者也一样。

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