“六行字足够绞死你”,这不是玩笑 —— 监视之恶(五)数据指控

(泡泡特约)17 世纪,法国政治家红衣教主 Cardinal Richelieu 有句名言,“给我这个世界上最诚实的人写的六行字,我一定能从中找到足够的理由来绞死他”。无独有偶,斯大林手下的秘密警察首脑 Lavrentiy Beria 曾扬言,“让我看一下那个人,我就能告诉你他是个罪犯”。

他们表达的是相同的意思,即 如果你拥有关于某人的足够的数据,你就能找到足够的证据来发现他犯了某些罪。这就是为什么许多国家的法庭禁止警方进行非法调查(fishing expedition),这也是为什么美国宪法明确禁止空白搜查令 —— 就是那种基本上允许警方搜查任何东西的文件。空白搜查令是最有可能被极度滥用的东西,它们曾被统治美国的英国殖民者当成控制社会的方式。

相比互联网,上述那些都显得太麻烦了。

合肥市纪委监察委称,2018 年 3 月,在办理一则指定专案中,纪委人员从谈话对象处提取到一组被删除的微信聊天记录,“调查人员根据此条线索变换谈话思路,使谈话对象心理松动,交代问题,推进专案审查调查工作”。

互联网上没有真正的“删除”这是常识。一条信息被删除,它并没有进入回收站或彻底删除,以 Android 手机为例,被删除的信息只是意味着记录该信息的位置可以被新的数据覆写,有许多数据恢复软件或取证工具可以恢复被删除的信息。

不止是各种即时通信 APP 的聊天记录,手机上的文件、通讯录、短信、通话记录、记事本、日历等等也都一样,即使删掉也都可能恢复出来。同时,有一个技术领域叫司法取证,其中对手机的取证是很重要的研究方向,有大量相关论文。中国的一些取证工具已经可以支持对几十种即时通信 APP 进行取证。

微信为例,聊天记录保存在两个地方:腾讯的服务器和用户的设备,删除信息并不意味着腾讯会同时从服务器上删除信息,所以恢复信息最简单方法是向腾讯索取。微信并没有采用端对端加密,对腾讯而言你的信息就是明文,监视者无需担心解密。如果不向腾讯索取,那么恢复手机上的删除信息也是可能的。

“泛在监控”

泛在监控意味着,只要警方下决心搜寻证据,任何人都可能被判违法。不知道今年的五一劳动节中国人在做什么,也许和以往一样的享受假期娱乐。但在英国、德国,这一天人们走上街头根据隐私保护组织的呼吁举行了反对警方在公共场合使用间谍工具监视大众手机的活动(Twitter 标签 #spypolice

世界各地的警察正在使用越来越先进的技术在公共场所追踪他们想要的人。这些技术的使用会出现严重的隐私问题,因为它会收集大量的个人数据,而且被收集者往往不知情,并允许无限期地存储这些数据,而没有适当的保护措施或独立监督来防止滥用。

这些技术将会对抗议权、言论自由权和集会权产生越来越激烈的削弱。隐私保护组织呼吁人们关注这件事,以制止当权者秘密从智能手机下载内容的行为。在中国似乎尚未出现或未曝光这种恶劣的泛在监视手段的存在,但毫无悬念的,北京一定会学到并使用这种方法,历史证明,他们把其他国家发明的一切恶劣的监视手段都学到手了。

生活在一个你所做的一切都可能被储存,并在未来作为呈堂证供的世界里,这些监视技术是非常危险的,尤其是在那些具有很多模糊性和惩罚性的法律存在的国家,使得公诉人的自由裁量权超过需要他负责的部分,再加上有宽泛的材料为法律辩护。“六行字足够绞死你”,这不是玩笑。

中国什么样大多数人都了解,美国也差不多。“恐怖主义”的法律意义被无限扩展,以至于有人给哈马斯人道主义部门捐了 10 美元,也被视为了“恐怖主义帮凶”这里链接指向详细报道)。

监控将所有人置于危险之中,即使你没做错任何事也无法避免引火烧身,因为“错误”的定义是主观的,并且可以迅速改变。

如今的技术产生了如此多的数据,并且将它们无限期地保存起来,这一形势变得更加严峻了。这些非法的调查可以回溯到过去很久,甚至能找到你五年十年之前说过的话、做过的事,如果红衣教主想惩罚你,将轻而易举。

政府监视的另一大危害是导致人们被分类和区别对待。乔治华盛顿大学教授 Daniel Solove 将其称之为“卡夫卡式的”(链接指向这本书的详细内容)。如此多的数据被秘密使用,你无法辩驳,甚至无法看到对自己不利的证据。当系统开始使用这些监控数据进行自动决策时,这种情形将会被强化。

中国的女歌手吴虹飞曾经在微博上写道“我想炸的地方有北京人才交流中心的居委会,还有建委”,结果如何大家都知道,那是 2013年。在此前一年,一位爱尔兰年轻人 Leigh Van Bryan 准备趁假期来美国旅行,他在 Twitter 上写道:“这周放假,先行预告,我将摧毁美国”。美国政府已经全面监视了 Twitter,特工立刻收集到了 Bryan 的个人身份信息,他的班机一落地就直接到边境口岸抓住了他。

在英国的状况可能更糟,人们会因为一条带有种族主义的 tweet Facebook 帖子被判入狱(链接是两个具体案例的报道)。如今很多国家纷纷开始利用所谓的“假新闻法”,惩治当权者不喜欢的一切内容。马来西亚颁布此法案一个月后就抓捕了第一个人,此人只是说“马来西亚警方花了50分钟时间回应吉隆坡的紧急电话”,但马来西亚警察总监反驳说“时间为八分钟”。

更可怕的是美国军方以目标数据为基础开展部分无人机空袭。无人机空袭有两种:一种是定点清除 targeted killing,通过监控设备实现对某个已知个体的锁定;另一种是特征打击 signature strike,基于行为和个体特征对身份不确定的目标进行打击:他们的表面年龄、性别、位置以及看似正在做的事。2010年在巴基斯坦境内实施打击的高峰期,有至少一半属于“特征打击”。Manning 曝光的著名视频“Collateral Murder”显示,美军在巴格达空袭中误杀了两名路透社记者。就是属于这种攻击模式。

政府审查

如今互联网上的政府审查比以往任何时候都多。不仅仅是出于政治的原因,宗教国家可以随意使用传统或教义来审查人们的言论,在中国这种政府声称“以德治国”的国家,其“德”之模糊和宽泛,可允许执法者随意扩张非法内容的标准。

越南的“72号法令 Decree 72”禁止人们在网上讨论时事;英国默认审查色情内容,甚至包括裸体油画;法国、德国、奥地利审查“新纳粹”内容,包括被审查者认为是“煽动暴力”的网站;坦桑尼亚要求上网发言的人要先交费购买许可证,实现全面实名;巴基斯坦通过对 Twitter 和Facebook 施加压力删除揭露政府酷刑的内容……

大多数审查都因其监控的前提迅速变成了人们的自我审查,只要人们知道政府正在关注自己所说的每一句话,他们就不太可能阅读或谈论有可能“违禁”的话题了。2014 年颁布的俄罗斯法律要求博客作者必需实名登记,就是希望借此激发自我审查。中国采取全面实名登记后,中国社会看起来更擅长装傻了

人权观察组织早有报告,新闻记者对情报界和国家安全部门的报道已经被大规模监控严重制约。想爆料的内部知情人士不再有可能联系记者,因为他们担心自己被起诉。人权观察组织的结论是,大规模监控已经导致公民的知情权被剥夺,这正是社会整体寒蝉效应的产物。

联合国人权事务高级专员在 2014 年报告中指出:即使是仅存在捕获通信信息的可能,也会对隐私产生困扰,对个人权利 —— 包括言论自由和结社自由的权利 —— 产生寒蝉效应。

此言不虚。法国前总统萨科齐在竞选演讲中就直接说:“任何定期浏览助长恐怖、仇恨或暴力风气网站的人,都将被送进监狱” —— 这三个边界最为模糊的形容词直接变成了能绞死你的那六行字。

并且,这些可怕的审查不仅仅关乎现在,也同样关乎过去,因为这是互联网时代。

回溯性监控

每个人都会后悔自己多年前曾经说过的话或做过的事,不仅因为下意识的不可控和习惯性的口不择言,更多的是,每个人都会成长,认知、理解能力和眼界都会随着时间不断变化,还要加上身份地位的变化引发的看待一件事的角度出现了不同,没有任何活人会一成不变。

在互联网和各种 AI 监视手段出现之前,人类的对话和互动都是短暂的,这是我们思考和谈话的自然方式,除了罕见的例外:一本完好保存的日记,一个速记员抄录的法庭诉讼,一个政治候选人的演讲记录。

但现在一切都变了,面对面的会谈或会议越来越少,所有人都在网上交流、和亲密的伴侣通过即时通讯工具说悄悄话,人们盲目的认为这些谈话依旧是短暂的,但它不是,它们被完整地保存在你我无法控制的地方。

无法控制意味着你没有后悔的权利了,它们不能再被删除。

比尔盖茨在 1997 年就体会到了这一问题的可怕,他多年前的电子邮件被提供给了对手律师,作为微软公司反垄断诉讼发现过程的一部分。2014 年,一百多位明星也深刻体会到了这一可怕,她们自己认为已经删除了的私密照片被从她们的 iCloud 中窃取,而且在很大范围内被共享了(著名的艳照门事件)。

你通过互联网表达所有内心、你只要走出家门就会被各种摄像头瞄准、你购买的所有东西都被记录在案、你出门乘坐的一切交通工具加在一起就是你一生的行踪路线……当你的生活的一切都被记录下来的时候,任何掌握这些数据的人都能置你于死地 —— 从中找到那“六行字”易如反掌,只要他们想去找。

还有人觉得“从被删除的聊天记录中发现呈堂证供”这事有什么奇怪的吗?

政府和情报部门储存了大量的历史数据,而且随着技术的迅速增长,储存将变得越来越便宜,也就是意味着储存时间将随之迅速增加。2008 年时 XKEYSCORE 数据库只例行储存三天的语音和邮件内容,但它搜集了一个月的元数据;一个名为 MARINA 的数据库搜集并储存所有人一年内的历史记录;名为 MYSTIC 的数据库可储存整个百慕大群岛所有的通话记录;NSA 储存五年的电话元数据……如今俄罗斯和中国等国家都要求储存数据在本地,至少几个月以供当权者查看。

任何数据 —— Facebook 的历史数据、twitter 的数据、车牌扫描数据等等一切 —— 基本上已经可以被永久性保存,直到企业和政府机关自己决定删除。

当人们知道有关自己的一切都将被记录时,就不可能再自由发表言论和单独行动。当你经常处于审判、批评和纠正的威胁中时,你肯定会担心,不论是在现在还是不可预期的将来,这些被留存的数据将置你于死地。无论任何形式的授权监视和储存,都将集中于你我曾经的隐私和无辜行为。

所有人因此失去了个性,没人再敢于质疑当权者,社会停滞不前。权力无人监督,变得肆无忌惮,而人们只会听话顺从,彻底失去自由。

没有异议就没有社会进步,就没有民主

寒蝉效应对政治言论产生了严重的伤害。异议对民主有绝对重要的价值,同时所谓的“违法”也可能是有价值的,这正是人类变革社会的两种重要方式,泛在监控是民主自由和进步的大敌。

捍卫这一论断涉及微妙的论证过程。最简单的也是大众最为熟悉的比如,几十年前,同性恋还是不可想像的和非法的,如今很多国家在争取同性恋合法化;几年前,大麻还是非法的,而如今大麻合法化的运动正在很多地区获得主流的支持。即使旧的法律能够得到完全的执行,社会也永远达不到大多数公民都认可这些事情的地步 —— 它们必定在一个时期内仍然是非法的,尽管越来越多的人开始接纳,以致人们可以四处看看然后说:“这不是那么糟糕啊”。这个过程需要几十年,但它是一个过程,不可能不违法。

Frank Zappa 在 1971 年就说过:“如果没有偏离常规,进步就是不可能的”。

Consistency is the hallmark of the unimaginative. Most people are other people. Their thoughts are someone else's opinions, their lives a mimicry, their passions a quotation. But Society often forgives the criminal; it never forgives the dreamer

无处不在的监控和完美执法则完全漠视这个社会演进的过程。人类进步需要不完美的“安全系统”,允许人们自由地尝试一些新的事物,就像非正式的头脑风暴能松开束缚、培养创造力。如果不这样做,就无法慢慢将非法或不好变成不确定,再变成可能好,再变成合法。

中国社会之所以几百年来一直在吃权世界的残羹剩饭,从来没能享受过最新最自由的生活方式和思想灵感,正因为其传统和规矩不允许被偏离,人们骨子里就带着循规蹈矩、不可僭越的窝囊。曾经一位欧洲朋友开了个玩笑说,在中国如果你想推荐一个新思想或开创性的观点,最好能引经据典一大堆、再加上举出具体的著名的成功案例,否则没人愿意听你说什么,哪怕这正是真正的创意,能帮助人们走出围栏的前沿思想。

学过一点点历史的人都知道,我们当下所认为的理所当然的自由,在历史上某个时间段内是被大众视为威胁的,在过去的权力结构中被视为犯罪的。如果当局能够通过监视达到控制全社会的目的,这些变化就永远不可能发生。

这就是急需所有人关注新型监控体系的一个重要原因,即使你尚且没有因为它的存在而感到恐惧。如果我们和周围人已经不可能提出新的政治或社会观点,或者采取非常规的行动,所有人都会受到影响。如果胡佛通过监控成功地使马丁路德金保持了缄默,世界上就不会存在马丁路德金这个名字了

许多非法的事情毫无疑问永远是非法的,比如盗窃、谋杀,尽管完美的执法在极端情况下可能会有不可预见的影响,如果警察可以 24 小时跟踪你的汽车,然后在月底给你一大堆罚单;或者因为你没有定时清除路障垃圾,你所居住的小区的空中监控和摄像头通过人脸识别对你进行自动罚款,这对社会意味着什么?

2004 年,巴尔的摩利用航拍监控,将所有照片和发布许可证的数据库进行对比,以此来寻找“违建”并予以罚款。当时引发了社会全面的轰动和谴责。2018年,中国利用摄像头和人脸识别技术对闯红灯的人自动罚款 —— 在你的手机上弹出罚款单,其引起的轰动和抵制连 2004 年的万分之一都没有。

我曾经说过,中国政府的几乎一切恶行都是抄袭来的,比原创平均要晚十到二十年,这段时间就是中国反抗者的机会。因为如果你遇到的是“原创”其抵制方法很可能不会马上出现,而等中国人遇到这些恶行时,抵制方案早已成熟。就看你想不想要了。但事实显示,中国人的眼界普遍过窄,很多人并不了解其他国家发生过什么,结果就是人们误以为中国当局才是那个“原创”,从而连借鉴反抗技巧的机会都失去了。

如今《少数派报告》中讽刺的预测犯罪系统已经成为了现实,中国也已经学到了这种技术并进入了测试阶段。距离老大哥和思想罪的世界只有一步之遥了。

有一点中国政府永远也学不会,那就是哈佛大学法学教授 Yochai Benkler 所言:“缺陷是自由的核心纬度”。而所有想要自由的中国人,都应该明白这个最基本的道理,以及如何去得到你的自由。

—— 未完待续 ——

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