大陆微博已经成为“意识形态媒体”

文/
邱震

北大法学教授贺卫方与意识形态部门的角力仍在继续。从现在的情势看,贺卫方已经成为在高校强化意识形态管控的一大挑战,无论结果如何,都可以众说纷纭。但有一个角度值得重视,那就是:微博在这场对垒中的功能更值得注意,它已经不再是一个真正意义上的社交媒体,而是逐渐成为被当局熟练掌控的“意识形态媒体”。

所谓意识形态媒体,是指服从党的政治斗争的需要所建立起来的宣传舆论阵地。文革中的“两报一刊”时代,是指《人民日报》《解放军报》和《红旗》杂志。现在,这个名单在延长,增加了诸如《环球时报》、《求是》杂志,还有社交媒体类别的新浪微博。

与旧式意识形态媒体不同,新浪微博作为新媒体出现,即使曾经让执政党难以应付,但是在持续的高压审查下,新浪微博已经被驯服。以大V为核心所营造起来的微博信息框架,一旦大V被镇压、收服或收买,微博的整个话语体系都在向意识形态化方向转变。

意识形态媒体2.0

借助去年底今年初的操作手法看,政权在发动意识形态攻击战的时候,演练了一套娴熟的舆论战术:先由传统类型的意识形态媒体发表文章,设置议题时特意勾连某些微博大V,从而造成微博舆论场域的联动效应,借助微博的人际传播,壮大意识形态斗争的影响力

微博之所以无法抗拒它自身变成意识形态媒体,一是经过最近两年的管制,有力地排斥了自由派声音在微博的存在,自由主义立场的大V受到压制,活跃性骤降;二是官方鼓动政务微博进驻,一边清场一边让政府声音进场,从而改变了微博生态的多样性。

结构单一、声音单调的微博越来越有利于意识形态议题的扩散——因为它不再像从前那样受到有力牵制——而且,它与微博用户的恐惧心理相辅相成:越是强调意识形态,越能激起用户的恐惧心态;而越是恐惧,越容易造成意识形态议题的敏感,进而促成规模化传播,形成了以意识形态为中心的循环

高大喇叭下的边缘声音

就连反对者也会发现,自己在被意识形态议题牵着鼻子走。

在高校推行意识形态管控的精密步骤看,现实情况可能更加糟糕,一个主要的变化是无法直接地正面否定意识形态,只能做迂回侧击——问题是,当迂回侧击作为一个战略被反对者使用时,它实质上是承认这个体制的合理性,这就会将自身置于“谏言者”的角色,那么它就无法进行有力的辩驳,就会显得非常被动,难以有效回应。

微博成为一个超大型的广场,但这个广场不是观点的自由市场,而是变成被高音大喇叭占据的政治广场。那些嘲笑意识形态操弄的声音,不仅不合时宜,更主要的是,声音被淹没在意识形态议题掀起的大字报、大批判的赤色海洋中。作为“意识形态媒体”的微博,越来越像鸡肋。

所以,现在的一个问题可能是:需要拆掉微博这个“广场”,或者在某种程度上弱化它,让它成为废墟一样的东西,因为它无法被正确利用。过去那种认为微博促成社会运动、甚至引发革命的判断越来越显得过度乐观,安替所预言“维稳的微博”,正降临在日益强大的防火长城里。

可以想见,对微博的“转性”已经让当局尝到了甜头,舆论一律不再是梦想。在此前提条件下,更可以加以优化利用,从而服务于意识形态的政工需求,微博的功能势必会愈加扭曲,而微博用户势必变成意识形态攻击战的“肉鸡”,这是很可悲的局面。

总之,“社交媒体的微博”转变为“意识形态媒体的微博”绝对是个坏消息。大众话语的“容器”扭曲了“话语”,并且成为大众话语的限度,成为意识形态话语的“大杀器”,凝聚在这种社交媒体上的传播优势也正在向执政党加速倾斜,这是意识形态的反对者不得不思考的命题,如果继续陷在这个泥潭里,真的很难有出路。

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