假新闻产业触目惊心 互联网人真的如此好骗?

(泡泡特约)上篇中已提到,人们只要相信了一则假消息便很难放弃这种信任。类似的状况除了和本人的既有认知相关,更多的也与社会状况和信息传播有很大关系。当社会状况不妙、人心惶惶的时候,人们越渴望捕捉信息,不论真假都倾向于先信了再说。

谣言在动荡的社会局面下传播更快,长期处于紧张状态中的人更容易被假消息入侵。极权国家的人民、集中营里的犯人、被种族冲突阴影笼罩的族人、疫情爆发时的社会都充满着恐惧,恐惧是人们轻信谣言的动机。即便极端痛苦并不是普遍存在的,也会有许多人感觉愤懑和焦虑,他们非常容易受到散播者的影响。

政治混乱通常会导致失败,而对于民粹政客如特朗普来说,混乱似乎就是计划的一部分,冲突成为了一种政治资产。特朗普最大的特点是他对暴怒情绪的使用,twitter就是他自恋式暴怒的扩散渠道。

这点恰好与假消息生产者相一致。

《华盛顿邮报》网站在去年11月20日的头条文章中报道,两名26岁的美国年轻人建了个网站LibertyWritersNews.com,专门生产虚假信息,他们把虚假内容制作过程定义为“喂”用户(feed),因此非常关注、研究并了解用户心理。很明显,他们研究得非常透彻。

他们的内容几乎都是主观性评论、暗示和谣言,还会在标题里使用饱含情感、倾向性极强的字眼,比如:“不能相信奥巴马!”

报道说,他们生产一篇“报道”的速度极快,200个单词左右,10分钟解决,然后发布在网站上,随后迅速转到Facebook。当时他们在Facebook上已有80.5万粉丝--其中30万粉丝是今年10月获得的,也就是美国大选的热点时段,未来最模糊、人们最焦虑的时段。

报道特别描述了这些假消息的特征:在文末加上煽动性极强的字眼,比如:“如果你爱美国,就留下‘打倒全球主义者’评论!”在转发Facebook时会加注呼吁性文字:“我们绝不能让它发生!爱国者帮助扩散100万次!”或“如果你喜欢特朗普,点赞+转发!”

他们一边炮制、分发虚假信息,一边监测网站访问量统计(访问量有广告分成收入)和网友留言评论,随时观察用户“需求”并调整生产模式。一般情况下,1000个网络点击能获得13-14美元。今年7-8月之间,他们在Facebook上只有15万粉丝,每月的收入在10000美元-40000美元之间(含广告)。

现在他们挣得更多了。报道引述当事人之一Ben Goldman说,他觉得自己在过去6个月挣的钱可能抵得上做一份工作连续20年……在一篇题为《真相曝光!希拉里败选后干了什么?媒体不想让你知道的那些事……》的假消息中,内文没有一句是“反媒体”的,但他说:“我用这样的标题上千次了,暴力、混乱和进攻性言辞非常吸引读者”。

一位女网友在他们的文章下留言:“你是我唯一相信会报道真相的机构/媒体”。

他们说自己是“新型黄色记者”(黄色新闻或黄色记者是19世纪末20世纪初美国传媒业的一个专有名词),认为“所有成功新闻都具有震撼价值”,他们现在是在跟其他媒体比拼“谁写的更疯狂”……

没错,能激起人们的刺激性情感的假消息更容易被传播,每一个异常恶心的主题都会提高在互联网上传播的概率。它是思想市场最大的威胁。

上文中添加的数个链接您一定看出来了,均来自于本网早前发布的政治宣传系列,很简单,符合这些特征的信息已经不能称之为新闻,而是宣传。

宣传并不追求真实,它是带有目的的,用粉饰形成欺骗而达到目的。它撩动人们内心最深层的情绪和最不理性的欲望,迎合那些最幼稚懒惰的习惯性思维,在你不知不觉中,被牵引到对方的目的地。

宣传是一种侵略——宣传者试图征服你的思想和信仰,它将人的注意力吸引到某些因素上,而故意让你不去注意另一些更重要的信息。宣传的策略就如同军事花招和武器装备,如果想要终止,就必须将它们拆卸解体,内心和情感都要加强抵抗,它并不容易做到,人们80%的选择都处在下意识中。

尤其是在互联网上,受众很少思考或推敲信息,比如同时查看很多群聊,对每个群聊中出现的议题插两嘴、边看twitter边吃饭或工作等等。在这种情况下,可能很简单的因素就可达到骗取信任的目的,比如信息传播者的个人魅力(权威性)、周边大多数人怎么说、接受信息所带来的情绪是否当下所需、信息中是否给出了一个理由(哪怕是虚假理由),尤其是刺激性情绪,它太有感召力了,就如上文中那位假消息生产者的描述。

假消息分为两种,一种就根植于恐惧本身,另一种则源于希望,总之都是情绪,它们也都与散播者的即有认知存在着或多或少的联系。比如担心网络管制的中国人会相信那些原本出于自我审查而杜撰出来的管制消息;担心恐袭的欧洲人会轻信恐袭再次发生的传言;把改变寄希望于权斗的人们会信任所谓的“海外中文媒体”杜撰出来的宫廷戏;如果你买了一只股票希望它升值就会倾向于相信该公司生机勃勃之类的宣传……

人们恐惧和期待的心理都会引诱他们相信不同的假消息。对一个群体来说属于忧患类谣言的信息,对另一个群体来说就有可能是心愿类谣言,谣言的制造者当然深悟这个道理,他们决定散播一则什么样的谣言取决于他们希望人们做出什么样的反应。

有趣的是,对一些群体来说,忧患类谣言本身在某种程度上也可以是心愿类谣言,比如特朗普听说他的政敌正在酝酿一个邪恶计划、或者你最不喜欢的那个官员做出了一些令人毛孔悚然的事……你是不是会感觉很满足呢?如果你听到了一则消息描述一件令人愤怒的事,恰好证实了你早前的判断,在愤怒的同时也会有一种满足感。即便是纯粹的假消息你也会倾向于深信不疑。比如中文网络上的月经谣“脑控”。

在这一基础上,监督人们的言行就变得很简单了。并且谣言的传播本身就能获取到一些隐私信息,也就是人们称之为“钓鱼帖”的假消息杜撰方法,它还具有次生效应,可以进一步扭曲成为“含有真实信息的”虚假消息。

中文网络上存在着一种更特殊的假消息。日前,微信上热传的一篇题为“特朗普的女儿伊万卡来中国大使馆拜年内幕”的短文,它的写法就是非常典型的一些所谓海外中文媒体的编法--拿到一个线索,这个线索是事实的,剩下的才是关键部分,也就是顺着这条线去联想,编的逻辑看起来合理是因为它符合大众思考方式,但信息不是通过采访得来的,而是臆想出来的东西 也就是非事实。

似乎也只有中文消息中才有这种写法,它非常容易唬人。这类信息不值得被分析和传播,因为只有线索是真实的,而这个线索你可以从几乎任何专业媒体那里获得,其余都是在杜撰。还有一种流程相反但性质一样的假消息,也出自中文八卦小报:先收集人们的臆想或观点、然后把它们组装起来,从中引出一个结论,也就是说主题为假,辅助论据有可能是真。

使用这类写法的个人和平台在中文网络上反而收到了比专业媒体更多的支持和信任,这是非常不公平的,同时它体现出一个可怕的迹象:人们只是在看热闹,已经对真相漠不关心。

并且,这样的社会是最容易接受心理操控的社会。

在中国,人们倾向于认为被CCP封杀的东西、或者认为遭遇过CCP迫害的新闻单位其所发布的内容就都是真实可靠的,这一思路产生的背景中并不存在思考和辨析,而是来自单纯的情感反应——认为作恶者的敌人一定是善良可信的。很明显这个逻辑并不存在,就如同说“帅哥美女都是金口玉言”一样离谱。

人都是感情动物、直觉型认知占据全部认知的95%,于是利用情感来欺骗是最简单直接的方法,很早前开始便有人假以“很快会被删除”等措辞来标榜自己的内容是“有价值”的,拒绝使用https以至于多次招致网络攻击来粉饰受迫害的形象……不客气地说,这是发国难财,将利益建立在人们对侵犯人权的审查的焦虑之上。

俄罗斯媒体的特点是擅用断章取义,同一件事、同一个会议,他们能特别抓取一小部分对克里姆林宫绝对有利的片段来报道,就算是一段采访,它甚至也能只报道半句话,“但是”后面的内容被略去,如果你没有参考多家专业媒体的同类信息就很容易被欺骗。而绝大多数人不会那么做,信息嘈杂的空间内,人们已经逐渐养成了只看标题和导语的习惯,给了假消息更充分的发育空间。

互联网人生活在各自不同的回音室里,又因截然不同的观点而加速分化,小型团体构建了无数阴暗的隧道,不同群体间的互斥关系让人们很容易轻信那些能将对手置于可怕境地的虚假消息。这样的环境里谣言生产者自然春风得意,民主制度将遭到最大程度的破坏。这就是为什么需要强调信息筛选和垃圾识别必须成为互联网人的最基本能力

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