最佳庇护所和跨国维稳——透明度革命的未来

(泡泡特约)纽约大学著名新媒体学教授 Clay Shirky 曾经描述过这样的思想。他提到了第二次世界大战结束时,美国、大不列颠、加拿大、澳大利亚和新西兰情报机构达成的一项协议,称之为“UKUSA 英美协议”,该协议允许各国情报机构所做的事远远不止在德国和日本所进行的间谍活动。

英美协议成员组织从法律上禁止截取本国公民的通信,于是他们通常使用私下交换的方式,例如加拿大对澳大利亚公民进行间谍活动,并与澳大利亚秘密情报机构共享资料;而澳大利亚曾对加拿大公民进行窃听,并将资料交给加拿大通信安全机构……

Shirky 由此类推出:公民也可以做到逆向监控。“我们将看到的是一个跨国的泄密形式,Wikileaks 是全球第一个真正意义上的跨国媒体,没有任何一个国家的法律能够控制Wikileaks的行动”。全球透明度革命的未来就将根植于跨国媒体的成熟

Shirky 也预言了挑战:解密运动的跨国会带来阻止泄密的当权者的追击同样跨国,全球化控制将被极大推动,但正是我们必需面临的挑战。

最好的庇护所:瑞典和冰岛

斯德哥尔摩 - 瑞典互联网服务商 Bahnhof 的操作中心在冷战时期(Nuclear winter)曾经是瑞典的民防系统,这里的花岗岩墙壁在核爆炸的威胁下都能保护电脑无损。这里曾作为 Wikileaks 的周转地之一。月租不菲,但物超所值。

这些不是它的全部价值,它所拥有的瑞典的自由特性是其他大多数国家都无可企及的。1766年开始,瑞典对新闻来源和信息自由的保护就是全世界最强的,这种保护源自瑞典宪法,比美国宪法第一修正案还要早。在这种宪法的保护下对新闻进行审查是极其困难的,除非涉及“叛国案件”,否则检察官一概禁止向媒体组织询问信息来源的身份。

瑞典作为海盗党(Piratpartiet)发源地不是没道理的。

另一家位于斯德哥尔摩西北部、一座旧建筑的地下室里——PeRiQuito AB,就是大名鼎鼎的 PRQ。在Wikileaks之前,PRQ最著名的“住户”就是海盗湾(Pirate Bay),世界上最受欢迎的盗版音乐和视频的来源。PRQ和海盗湾都是瑞典黑客建立的,Gottfrid Svartholm 和 Fredrik Neij,当时他们只有19岁和25岁,已经成为编码专家。这里有一部纪录片 TPB AFK: The Pirate Bay Away From Keyboard 

海盗湾的访问量比当时纽约时报还高,不仅在于它实现了“文化就意味着共享”的数字时代信息平权宗旨,而且他们还经常曝光一些有趣的信息,比如他们收到的法律威胁以及对威胁作出的回应,都会发布在网站上。他们也关注国际政治,还声援过伊朗革命。

2007年,瑞典警方对PRQ进行了搜查,并没收了服务器,当局希望借此逼海盗湾下线。此后海盗湾离开了原来的家园,横跨欧洲在多个临时主机之间不断跳跃,但PRQ仍拥有大量粉丝。

PRQ 反独裁反专制的政策意味着它很少记录能够确定网站访问者身份的流量,服务器尽可能少的保留了2000个客户的信息,但对这些身份均进行了加密。服务器要求租用空间的网站预付现金,但不会过问任何个人的详细资料。(一般国外客户以支票和信用卡授权方式的支付在提取现金时需要核对付款方信息,而现金支付则可以避免这点)

“通常我们不知道客户是谁,根据瑞典法律,我们不需要知道” —— PRQ

瑞典的法律和高端技术公司的服务使包括 Wikileaks在内的很多挑战专制政府的国际独立平台运转顺利。

在冰岛首都雷克雅未克有一家名为“1984”的网络托管中心,创始人是 Mörður Ingólfsson,他不会向任何人提供客户信息,不论你是警察还是记者。1984是冰岛最大的网络主机公司,该公司充分体现了冰岛维京人的个性态度——“我们不会对威胁、恐吓、操纵、压力或调查作任何回应,我们宁可破产,也不能打破我们与客户之间的信任”。

冰岛的新媒体计划是将全世界各个国家中关于信息自由度最好的条款整合在一起的结果,例如瑞典对保护信息来源的重视、比利时的避免互联网服务商将记录呈交给法庭的第三方通信安全保护,以及纽约的禁止使用外国法律在当地提起诉讼的保护等等。其修订后的条款允许国民查询政府文件,还为自由表达设立了一个类似诺贝尔的奖项。

在Wikileaks发布 “间接谋杀”(Collateral Murder)后的一年,冰岛现代媒体计划出现了第一个成果,冰岛议会通过了一项新的法案,对新闻来源的匿名性提供了与瑞典同样强劲的法律保护。在该法案中,冰岛记者们并非只是简单的免于受到可能暴露其消息来源的调查,而是从法律上获得了禁止确认身份的权利。

在法律上,冰岛展现了一个完美的全球数字庇护所特征。比如在雷克雅未克郊外驻扎的 Thor 数据中心(名字来自北欧神话中的雷神)它使用的是热发电站的绿色电力,使用免费的极地空气为大型服务器机房做天然冷却。这些电脑所有者们希望在冰岛新媒体计划的协助下将其服务器扩充到数千台,以容纳全球来冰岛寻求庇护的“有争议”的数据,尤其是那些被政府威胁的民间发声者。

跨国维稳

然而推动冰岛媒体自由法案成功的主力 —— 冰岛海盗党政治人物、无政府主义者 Birgitta Jónsdóttir 惊讶地发现,逃避美国政府对匿名性的打击战非常困难。2011年 Jónsdóttir 收到了来自twitter的邮件:美国政府要求调查其业务中的所有数据,无论是公开的还是私人的。

不论哪个互联网服务商都逃不过政府的压力。美国在线AOL曾经透露,每个月收到政府索取数据一千次之多,那还是12年前呢;十年前的Facebook只有现在的三分之一大,它的职员曾向媒体透露执法部门每天索取数据的请求就会达到20次!谷歌表面上看起来是唯一公布政府索取数据的大型互联网公司,网上可以搜到所谓的“透明度报告”,其中的数字已经足够惊人,如果你读过棱镜计划文件原版,就会明白,谷歌公开的报告只是冰山一角。

Jónsdóttir 的案子和他们的差别在于,twitter是自己主动找麻烦的 —— 主动告诉美国政府来twitter调查她。

她不是唯一被调查的。此外还有雅各布·阿佩尔鲍姆(Jacob Appelbaum)不仅是Wikileaks的支持者、也是Tor项目前发言人,Wikileaks的荷兰合作伙伴 Rop Gonggrijp,以及 Julian Assange 和 Chelsea Manning,都在同一张巨网中。twitter至今不给Assange认证,导致假冒他并污蔑他的账号大行其道,就是这个原因。

当时美国司法部拼命寻找与Wikileaks相关的一切信息,包括任何与 Manning 交谈过的人都有可能被一起纳入调查。

相比下twitter还算有点“良知”的,至少通知了 Jónsdóttir 这种调查的存在,而 Jónsdóttir 的律师发现,另外还有四家未指明的公司也接受了索取她资料的要求,但根本没告诉她。

一次次的上诉后,法庭居然对他们开出了禁令,宣称“用户在诸如推特这样的服务上不要奢求隐私!”最终他们输掉了官司,他们的资料都被交给了调查者。

Jónsdóttir 在冰岛实现了言论自由和作为其基础的匿名权保护,然而她的 twitter 资料却保存在美国。现在全球绝大部分社交媒体用户的资料都存在美国和中国,不是美国就是中国,中美在刮分全球互联网人的数据,这就不是一个自由的冰岛和一个捍卫知情权的瑞典能解决的问题了。

除非一家媒体和技术公司将其全部职员和资产都迁往冰岛,不然其成员和财产回国后将服从旧的媒体法律。“就算冰岛法律提供了全世界最好的保护,它们仍不过是一条马其诺防线”——欧洲著名法律博客作家 Arthur Bright 

改变全球其他地方的法律以符合言论自由和隐私安全的保障,是 Jónsdóttir 一直以来的追求,她和另一名捍卫者合作希望将冰岛作为样本,在雷克雅未克和其他地方会见信息自由倡导者以催生新的运动,比如爱尔兰现代媒体计划、意大利现代媒体计划、甚至在美国加利福尼亚也赢得了支持。加州有密码朋克文化,当年Wikileaks选择在旧金山注册就是出于这个原因,加州人对个性化精神和言论自由有着出于本能的支持,一旦遭遇政府打压,当地人更有希望为Wikileaks摇旗呐喊。(然而在加州生活了二十多年的华裔民权活动家居然都不知道 John Barlow 是谁……仅仅用文化隔膜解释似乎不通吧)

权利再分配

一个月前刚刚离世的EFF创始人 John Barlow 在冰岛银行系统崩溃前的夏天(2007年),站在雷克雅未克大学“冰岛数字自由社会大会”的讲台上,他的演讲题目是《关于人类交流的历史》,从语言发明到第一台印刷机,他认为是机器媒介带来的权利再分配引发了从30年战争到西班牙宗教法庭期间所发生的一切。500年后,人类面对的是互联网新媒介。

John 毫无疑问地指出,互联网代表着另一次的权利再分配,其对社会的影响程度就如同古滕堡当年的活版印刷术一样。

John 绝不是嘴炮,在那之后的25年里他花费了大量时间和金钱,与那些试图遏制互联网空间的政府和大财团作战,他说“我想到对付国家政权的答案就是国家政权。以和他们同等的地位和他们斗争”。

你所支持的东西必然需要用行动去捍卫,否则你的口号声嘶力竭也一样毫无价值。

密码无政府主义意味着每个个人必须保护保护自身秘密,而不能指望政府或企业为你做到这点。同时也意味着所谓的“国家机密”、“商业技术机密”将不会长期保密。privacy for theweak and transparency for the powerful. 强有力的加密技术就掌握在人民手中,对全世界的政府而言都是最致命的威胁。

能量已经被释放。如今国家的边界不过是信息高速公路的减速带而已。

未来

2002年,密码朋克邮件列表(Cypherpunk Mailing List)的前开发者 Bram Cohen 发布了端对端共享协议“BitTorrent”(比特洪流)。它不直接向请求资源的用户发送资源,而是通过由拥有资源的用户作为分发者向请求资源的用户发送数据,而后者又可以将自己接收到的资源的部分发送给其他的用户,直到每个人都完成下载。该技术使得原始服务器可以为很多个大型文件请求服务同时又不需要很大的带宽。(如今几乎每个中国人都知道BT,可惜只是用它来下载盗版电影……)

两名意大利黑客 Fabio 和 Arturo 是“全球解密(GlobalLeaks)”的共同创始人(也是Tor研发者),他们称自己的目标是为Wikileaks旗下的(napster)公司创建比特洪流。Wikileaks是一个单一的易受攻击的目标,全球解密旨在创造一个“全球性,分布式泄漏扩增网络”。

这两个意大利人和其他一些程序员一直在研发的软件并不提供Wikileaks那样迅速的解密服务,他们仅仅提供软件,这些软件允许任何人在几分钟内建立解密途径,并基于Tor的隐藏服务向用户提供安全而难以追查的提交系统。

全球解密不限制任何人使用它的软件,并在网上公布了源代码,供所有人观看、修改和使用。

他们的目标是将解密运动从模仿 Wikileaks 的上百个“揭秘网络节点”扩大到上千个。和比特洪流一样,全球解密旨在将处理敏感资料的风险分散给个人,而不是中介机构这样的弱势群体。

冰岛现代媒体运动、巴尔干解密、全球解密,这些都可以追溯到二十多年前开发的密码朋克运动,甚至是密码朋克出现之前20年揭发五角大楼文件运动的后续。它们在过去40年中取得了巨大的成就,而如今它们将出现另一个新的开始。

就如 John Young 激动人心的演讲所言:

Wikileaks在短暂的历史中经历了数次转型,其中有些转型非常痛苦,有些甚至几近夭折,但它每次都以新的活力战胜了这些困境,同样眼下的挑战依旧能被战胜。它最令人钦佩的地方就是其在压力最大的时候能迅速恢复活力,并且更具创新性。它也许会面临更大的压力,但我觉得这是好事,如果缺乏了让其变得更强大的动力,它就会屈服于怠惰、沉浸在以前的光环中。

我们为什么不能像Wikileaks一样努力,承担大于你应该应付的风险,不要仅仅追随他的潮流,而是要走自己的路,直面一切嘲讽、赞扬和指责。如果你能像 Assange 一样执着勇敢和幸运,你才有可能由于受人钦佩而获得回报成就你的理想。

也许你会成为一个失败者,但也好过毫无作为的中庸者。

技术每时每刻都在进步,当权者每时每刻都在策划着阴谋,拼命想要夺取人民的一切。随着互联网的成熟和深化,解密运动将变得更加强壮,更加坚实有力。中国人现在开始了解这些常识尚且不晚。

 

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