为什么中国社会看起来很“傻”

(泡泡特约)上个月和朋友聊天时谈到:为什么极右更容易被组织动员,而很多支持正义的人却很难联合起来?其中有人提到了文革,这是个很自然的关联,同时也引出了那个烂大街的月经之辩:“文革会不会重来”。

这个提问一开始就是错的,因为辩论各方并没有就如何定义文革这个问题达成一致。大多数人都承认,当下的中国搞不出毛泽东时代那种纯精神力量支持的大规模社会运动,但同时也无法否认,习近平政权能花钱买到几乎一模一样的运动局面,达成几乎一模一样的效应。

其原因在于:这个社会整体的“傻”。

之所以给傻字加引号,是因为它并不是真的,至少不是所有人都如此 —— 底层真傻、中产装傻、富人看热闹顺风倒,这是我多年前的调侃,至今似乎仍不过时。举个最近发生的简单例子,英美法的叙利亚轰炸。

很多中国官媒工作者在“私下”里都在高度支持英美法的轰炸,为之兴奋,他们说着与当权者同样的话,把平民的死亡解释为所谓的“附带伤害”。并且这种与共产党外交部所表达之态度截然相反的现象曾多次出现过。可以说这是整件事中最有趣的部分。

又一个引号。之所以给私下二字加引号,是因为这些人除了说梦话之外从无“私下”因为他们一直都在害怕,甚至已经给害怕的心态赋予了合理性,以至于当自我审查之欲求来袭时,自己都分不清哪个才是真心所想。

这是他们长期所处的环境所造成的。他们不知道身边哪个人是领导的心腹、意识形态探子、还有打小报告上瘾的自干五,换句话说就是,我们能看到的他们的全部表达都是有目的的——以其领导的意图为宗旨,以其单位颁布的“口径暗示”为基准。简而言之:中国当局的本意很可能是支持这场对叙利亚轰炸的,至少那些官媒的领导在如此揣测。中国当局之所以在外交态度上表现为反对,不过是一贯的民族主义“反美”立场,和普京一样,民族主义同样是共产党的政权根基。

另一方面,某些中国异议学者之本心同样是反对这场战争的,因为他们了解:这不是什么正义之战,而是各种利益牵涉的杀戮,肮脏的代理人战争,但他们的表达被他们的公共角色所绑架了——他们似乎在要求自己履行与中国当局的公开态度相反的“义务”,这样才能维护他们自己在舆论场上的身份之稳固。

换句话说就是,他们已经无法让自己就事实来判断了。而忠于事实本身,是知识分子之所以为知识分子的根基。

他们傻吗?肯定不。那些官媒记者傻吗?也不。信息并没有严重不对称,很多人一直在积极地收集国际上最新的信息并传播给他们,但是没用,正因为这不是傻而是愚蠢 —— 注意,傻和愚蠢完全不同,前者是无意识的,完全可以通过信息补充而淡化和纠正,后者是有意识的,有目的的,任何方法都无从纠正 —— 于是信息自由在此改变不了任何。

之所以举这两类人为例,是因为他们合在一起基本构成了中国舆论界的精英阶层的一个大部分,大多数的其他人都在模仿他们的观点来构建自己的观点,是他们,在决定了大半中国人的认知 —— 即我们所能看到的所谓中国舆论场之意见倾向。

Most people are other people. Their thoughts are someone else's opinions, their lives a mimicry, their passions a quotation

Oscar Wilde 说过,绝大部分人都活成了别人,他们跟着别人的意见、别的生活方式,他们的人生只是在模仿。有创见性观点和具有突破性创造力的人永远都是极少数,这些少数派并不是被大众模仿的对象,恰恰相反,他们是被大众所鄙夷和排斥的人

上个月,aeon 发表了一篇文章:“Say goodbye to the information age: it’s all about reputation now”。文章说,在我们高度互联的自由民主社会里,未受到重视的知识悖论在其中扮演了一种关键角色:流通的信息量越多,我们越依赖于所谓的“声誉设备”去评估它

造成这种悖论的原因是,今天大量获取到的信息和知识并没有让我们具有认知上的自主。相反,它让我们更依赖于其他人对信息的评估和判断。人们与知识的关系正经历范式上的转变 —— 从信息时代开始走向了声誉时代,信息只有在被其他人过滤、评估和评论之后才具有价值。

由此看来,声誉成为了今天集体智慧的核心支柱。它是知识的看门人,而门的钥匙却被他人所掌握。知识权威的建立方式使得我们依赖于其他人不可避免的偏见判断上,而我们大多数人对此一无所知……

这并不是什么新鲜事,在中国这样的长期封闭和自闭的社会里,可以说一贯如此,仅仅是互联网的信息爆炸让这一现象被高度突出化了。

太早就不提了。80年代,中国文学界流传着一个说法,叫“铅字效应”,指的是不论任何观点,只要它被印成铅字,就很容易被大众认同。铅字意味着“权威”可笑吗?让印刷术将一个傻逼变成真理代言人?但在中国,当时的人们就是这样认为的。

如今这一“效应”在互联网上形成了镜像——只要是“名人”专栏,不管它喷的什么玩意儿,都能获得广泛认同。媒体最看重的是知名度,而不是真理甚至不是逻辑。

从众在某种程度上已经成为一种热门的生活方式。

“汇集全球智慧“ 的社交媒体如今变成了全球最平庸乏味的地方,尤其是中文,老生常谈的话题,包括海外华人异议人士,都在使用老旧的模式、着眼于在中文社交媒体上狭窄的小圈子内所能获得的自身影响力营销,沉迷于常识的重复和口水,完全无法感知他们的联合价值……

“流行”是一个悖论,它意味着烂大街、没有深度,甚至已经开始过时和错误。粉丝经济让很多人开始变态,为了获得关注——声誉,不惜造假、夸张、胡言乱语。在中文 tweet 中,影响力最大、转发量最高的都是这类玩意。

王尔德在一百多年前就说过:Popularity is the one insult I have never suffered(人气是我从未遭受过的一种侮辱)。而如今,这种侮辱变成了绝大部分人的渴望。

借助互联网,媒体从单向传输转变为双向选择后,对侮辱的渴望几乎变成了信息生产者和信息消费者之间最大的“共识”。

媒体拼命消费名人,不论什么人“火了”都能被新闻捞一笔。消费死者已经不够恶心了,更为通常的是,不论任何领域、任何话题,统统找名人发言,也不管那些名人的智商如何。在中国,大部分能成名的人往往只是意味着一个成功的营销贩子、与体制最亲密的奴才、或者最擅长讨好浅薄和无知的骗子。

新闻和时评被名人垄断的结果就是,有价值的内容越来越少,八卦烂俗严重稀释了事件本身真正的社会价值 —— 大批媒体花费超长篇幅研究 Julian Assange 的头发,却忽视 Wikileaks 带来的媒体革命新模式的惊人价值;对 Edward Snowden 的女朋友和所谓的“爆料动机”的揣测,比大规模监控的事实本身的周知度还要高;艾未未的婚姻状况和成长环境几乎尽人皆知,却少有人了解他所有创作的真正含义……

这就是媒体所造成的权威变成了毫无价值,无法形成正向的积极的带动力,那些做出贡献的人,其贡献价值被头发和女朋友所淹没,何其荒唐。媒体可以大言不惭地辩解为:吸睛度就是利润、流量就是上帝。他们认为信息消费者感兴趣的只是头发和女朋友?

是的,人们喜欢权威,信任权威,甚至依靠权威,权威认同在中国尤其突出。一些开始警惕和反对共产党政治权威的人忽然发现自己赖以生存的精神依靠——那个权威者的位置——被空出来了,但他们所表现出来的并不是兴奋,也不是终于获得自由的轻松,而是忙于填补这个空白,忙于为自己寻找一个新的权威来认同。

这是个很有趣的社会景观,从单位领导到高校教授,从社会阶层到名校光环,无不被人们赋予了权威的地位,于是信任之、屈从之,在社交媒体上,权威甚至可以是一个群聊的创建人:群主!群主被认为一言九鼎,无人能反驳。家长制继续在虚拟世界发扬光大了。

真理呢?谁在乎。

并且更有,人情社会的所谓传统为此处的权威声誉又添加了一层人情面子的色彩。我曾经很不客气地说,在中国,相比事实,人们更愿意去信任一条看起来长得漂亮的狗。这可不是戏言。

也就是说,如果你不能首先构建起广泛的人情网络,就最好不要从事以推广事实真相为主体的工作,比如知识分子、媒体、时政观察者等等,否则你会被踩得一塌糊涂。最善意的结果是被无视。

对所有在中国做上述工作的人来说都一样,也是为什么你经常能看到他们在装傻,不论是以公共角色的维系为目的,还是以人际关系网络的稳固为目的。很多人并不傻,并不是无从了解事实,但他们会在很大程度上无法实现捍卫事实真理的知识分子基本职能。

前天,南华早报发表了一篇文章,说中国长期封锁国际社交媒体平台是为了消除“外国观念”对中国人可能产生的影响,从而保持共产党观念之影响的一家独大。

报道说,这种持续的审查很可能会适得其反。中国经济肯定会遭受持续使用 GFW 的严重打击。同时 GFW 也在妨碍中国自己的科学家的创新,因为他们无法在第一时间获得世界上许多最新的趋势和想法。毫无疑问,中国的创新和创意产业将严重落后于世界……

这是老生常谈了,此文并没有任何新颖的观点,因为它仅仅指出了中国社会为什么看起来傻的一部分原因。一小部分。但这一观点一直以来都是国际上大大小小的主张互联网信息自由组织对中国的认识。也因此,他们做了很多工作,尽可能地帮助中国人打开眼界,就如 GreatFire 组织的项目 —— 这里的链接指向详细内容。我敢保证,它提供了理论上能解决中国社会普遍的“傻”所需要的一切工具。

是理论上如此。和很多心态积极的欧洲朋友一样,我也一直认为部分中国人的认知问题源于 GFW 的阻碍——信息不自由造成的封闭,于是我们的 #openChina 运动旨在打破这一封闭,让人们接触到更多更全面的信息。但目前为止,我们的工作是失败的局面(上面链接指向了我们对这一失败的分析)。事实显示,人们只喜欢收集符合自己原有观点的信息,而对扩充知识根本不感冒,不仅意味着回音壁效应不容小视,更有,当声誉时代遇到人情社会时,真相正在死去

中国人不都是傻的,中国社会有很多聪明人,只是这份聪明被形形色色的所谓生存哲学所扭曲,被意识形态所绑架,他们已经无法在就事实论断这一基本原则上发挥作用。而他们恰恰成为了某些领域的权威,成为了高度依赖权威的绝大部分中国人的信仰。

这就是为什么中国社会表面上看起来很“傻”。这是比真傻更难以解决的问题。

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Singing worship songs is sweet but that?s not the
only technique to worship.? Daddy mentioned, maybe to make Larry cease singing.
?There are many methods to worship.

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Freelancing also can result in an enormous “plus” regarding your income.
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I do know a sport we will play that is like Daddy is talking about.?

Mommy said making both boys need to know the sport a lot.
?It?s called ?What is the smartest thing about God.
And each of us has to provide you with one really great point
we like about God. Who desires to go first?? Lee and Larry
jumped and shouted ?ME ME!? waving their fingers within the air like they do at
school. Finally, Mommy mentioned, ?Nicely Lee, since you might be
two minutes older than Larry, you possibly can go
first.

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Nicely boys,? Mommy finally mentioned after that they had
give you numerous foolish ideas of what God did for enjoyable,
?What God really likes is when folks love one another and care
for one another like we do in our family.? That made sense to Lee and Larry so Lee hugged Mommy and Larry hugged daddy to only make God happy.

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If you find yourself interested by a new profession as a paralegal, there are a variety of choices which youll consider.
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My turn, my turn.? Larry said eagerly wiggling to
get an opportunity to talk. ?I think one of the best factor about God is that he can beat up the devil because
the satan is scary and mean and ugly and unhealthy and God can beat him up so the
satan can?t harm us like he did these demon filled individuals in Jesus day.

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I wager hes PERFECT at it!? Laughed Larry.

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Would Becoming A Freelance Paralegal Be A Good Option For You?

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If job safety is excessive in your list of priorities, this is another issue thats not
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There are, after all, some unfavourable points to freelancing.
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This is such a fun game and we had a perfect birthday Daddy.?
Larry added. ?Can we play ?What?s the perfect factor about
God? tomorrow too?? he begged his Mommy.

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Or maybe he likes bowling.? Lee continued. ?I heard somebody say that when you hear thunder,
that signifies that God is bowling in heaven. I wager he is really good at it.

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WE WILL.? They both shouted and they ran to the bed room bickering about who gets
to go first.

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LIKE WHAT DADDY, TELL US, TELL US.? Both boys jumped up and down wanting to know
methods to make God happy.

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I know!? Said Larry. ?I wager he likes angels as a result of
he has them around all the time. Maybe he and the angels play
household games like we do sometimes. Perhaps they play
Monopoly.? This made Mommy laugh really hard.

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冒个泡吧!

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